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BBC Pharm

Ch. 7 Penicillins

are penicillins bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic? bactericidal. They are only active against acively growing organisms.
Describe how penicillins work. they interfere with the last step of cell wall synthesisis in three ways.
describe the three ways penicillins interfere with cell wall synthesis bind to BPB (naturally occur in periplasmic membrane), inhibit transpeptidase, induce autolysins
what are the naturally occuring (first generation) penicillins? penicillin G and V
what are the second generation penicillins also known as? beta lactamase penicillins. they are good for bacteria that have developed resistance through posession of the enzyme beta lactamase (which lyses the beta lactam ring of penicillin).
beta lactamase is also known as what? penicillinase
list the second generatin penicillins methicillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, afcillin, cloxacillin, nafcillin, flucloxacillin
what are the third generation penicillins also known as? what do they target? broad spectrum penicillins, they target gram negatives AND gram positives
third generation penicillins are often mixed with what to work against many bacteria? name some third generation penicillins they are mixed with beta lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanic acid or sulbactam. examples are ampicillin, amoxacillin
extended spectrum penicillins are also termed what? antipseudomonal penicillins, because they part particularly well suited to target infections with pseudomonas Aeruginosa
list the extended spectrum penicillins carbenicillin, pipercillin, ticarcillin. they enter the bacteria through pores
why don't all penicillins affect gram negatives? gram negatives will not allow penicillins to enter themselves, but some have pores through which penicillins can enter
why do some bacteria have beta lactamases and others of the same species do not? because beta lactamase is only produced in bacteria that have the gene for it. They can get this gene by acquiring a plasmid that contains the gene from another bacteria
list some side effects of penicillins anaphylactic shock, seizures, angioedema, maculopapular rash, diarrhea
how are all penicillins except nafcillin excreted? renally
how is nafcillin excreted? biliary route
patients allergic to penicillin are typically given what? erythromycin (A macrolide, which is a protein synthesis inhibitor)
Created by: aferdo01