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Chapter 14

Lorenzo DE' Medici was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance.
Francesco Petrarch was an Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists
leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer.
Michelangelo Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
Raphael Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, better known simply as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance
Baldassare Castinglione Baldassare Castiglione, count of Casatico, was an Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier and a prominent Renaissance author.
iccolo Machiavelli Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance.
patron Financial supporter of the arts
humanism intellectual movement at the hear of the Italian renaissance that focused on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues.
humanities study of subjects taught in ancient greece and Rome, such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history.
perspective artistic technique used to give drawings and paintings a three-dimensional effect
Albrecht Durer a German painter, engraver, printmaker, mathematician, and theorist from Nuremberg
Jan van Euck a Flemish painter active in Bruges and is generally considered one of the most significant Northern European painters
Francois Rabelais a major French Renaissance writer, doctor, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.
William Shakeseare an English poet and playwright, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language
Miguel de Cervantes a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright
Johann Gutenberg German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe.
Engraving art form in which an artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid and then uses the plate to make multiple prints
vernacular everyday language of ordinary people
Utopian any ideal society
protestant reformation the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, and other early Protestants
martin luther Martin Luther OSA was a German monk, former Catholic priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of a reform movement in 16th century Christianity, subsequently known as the Protestant Reformation
peace of augsburg temporary settlement within the Holy Roman Empire of the religious conflict arising from the Reformation. Each prince was.
john calvin John Calvin was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism
huguenot were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France during the 16th and 17th century.
john knox John Knox was a Scottish clergyman and a leader of the Protestant Reformation who is considered the founder of the Presbyterian denomination in Scotland.
indulgence in the roman catholic church, pardon for sins committed during a persons lifetime
recant give up ones views or beliefs
predestination idea that god long ago determined who will gain salvation
theocracy government run by religious leaders
Henry VIII Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later assumed the Kingship, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France
Elizabeth I Elizabeth I was queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called "The Virgin Queen", "Gloriana" or "Good Queen Bess", Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty.
council of trent was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church.
inquisition was a group of institutions within the judicial system of the Roman Catholic Church whose aim was to combat heresy.
jesuits a member of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order of priests founded by St. Ignatius Loyola, St. Francis Xavier, and others in 1534, to do missionary work.
teresa of avila Teresa of Ávila, also called Saint Teresa of Jesus, baptized as Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada, was a prominent Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic saint, Carmelite nun.
annul cancel or invalidate
canonize recognize one as a saint
compromise acceptable middle ground
scaegoat person, group, or thing forced to take the blame for the crimes or mistakes of others
ghetto separate section of a city where members of a minority group are forced to live
Nicolaus copernicus Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a heliocentric model of the universe which placed the Sun, rather than the Earth, at the center
johannes kepler Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his laws of planetary motion, based on his works
galileo galilei Galileo Galilei, often known mononymously as Galileo, was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution
francis bacon Sir Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St. Alban, Kt., QC was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, essayist, and author. He served both as Attorney General and Lord Chancellor of England.
rene descartes René Descartes was a French philosopher, mathematician, and writer who spent most of his life in the Dutch Republic.
isaac newton Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.
robert boyle Robert Boyle, FRS, was a 17th-century natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor. Born in Lismore County Waterford, Ireland, he was also noted for his writings in theology.
heliocentric based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe
hypotheses possible explanation
scientific method painstaking method used to confirm findings and to prove or disprove a hypothesis
gravity force that tends to pull one mass or object to another
Created by: reeces05