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World History Sem 1

Final Exam Review

TermDefinition
Justinian Code reorganized collection of Roman laws that served as a guide for future monarchies and governments
Iconoclast Controversy a dispute that arose in the Catholic Church of the Byzantine Empire over the use of religious images
Silk Road Extensive trade route that stretched from China to the Mediterranean Sea that led to the spread of goods, culture, religion, techonlogy.
Mecca birth place of Mohammed and holy city where Muslims must make a pilgrimmage to at least once in their life.
Sunni one of the largest Muslim sects who believe that inspiration comes from the example of Mohammed.
Ottoman Empire Turkish speaking nomads who were led by Suleyman the Magnificent
Feudalism Decentralized economic and political structure in Europe where a lord granted land to a vassal in exchange for his loyalty and protection against invaders
Charlemagne King of the Franks who was declared Holy Roman Emperor and helped unify the Christian church.
Magna Carta a charter approved by King John of England that limited royal power and established certain rights of freemen.
Chivalry code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages
Bubonic Plague disease spread by fleas on rats that wiped out one third of the European population in the Middle Ages
Renaissance a time of creativity and change in politics, art, culture, and society that began in Italy after the Middle Ages.
Humanism intellectual movement of the Renaissance that focused on the classics of Greek and Roman art and literature
Gutenberg Inventor of the movable printing press which led the spread of knowledge after the Dark Ages
Leonardo da Vinci Famous inventor and artist of the Renaissance who painted the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper
Niccolo Machiavelli Wrote a famous book called The Prince that was used as a guidebook by many rulers.
Martin Luther German monk who rebelled against the practices of the Catholic Church and was a major catalyst of the Protestant Reformation
95 Theses Martin Luther's written complaints against the Catholic Church that led to his excommunication
Protestant Reformation Religious movement which split the Catholic Church and led to the formation of new Christian denominations such as Lutheranism and Calvinism
Line of Demarcation Division of the non-European world into two zones for Spain and Portugal to explore.
Columbian Exchange the transfer of new foods, animals, and disease between the Old World and the New World
Prince Henry the Navigator Portuguese explorer who started a school for sailors to learn how to navigate to the New World
Aztec Empire Area of Mexico ruled by Montezuma which was eventually taken over by Cortes and the conquistadores
English Civil War War between the Cavaliers and the Roundheads which was fought to end the absolute monarchy of Charles I.
Oliver Cromwell Leader of the Roundheads who ended the reign of Charles I and declared England a republic.
Roundheads Followers of Oliver Cromwell who were composed of country gentry, town-dwelling manufacturers and Puritan clergy
Glorious Revolution Reestablishment of a limited monarchy in England which included a bill of rights for the citizens
King Henry VIII Established the Church of England because the Pope would not allow him to divorce one of his six wives.
Enlightenment European movement that emphasized reason and thinking to cause changes in society, economics, science, and government.
John Locke Wrote the Treatises of Government that stated people developed governments to protect the natural rights they were born with
Salon Informal social gatherings where writers, artists, philosophers, and others exchanged ideas.
Estates General Legislative body of French government consisting of members of the three estates of French society
Declaration of Rights of Man Document written by the National Assembly of France asserting the natural rights which the monarchy was denying them
Robespierre One of the leaders of the Jacobins who would begin the Reign of Terror and would eventually be executed
Reign of Terror Period during the French Revolution when 10's of thousands of people were executed by the guillotine
Byzantine Empire Empire that emerged after the fall of the Holy Roman Empire
Five Pillars of Faith Belief system of Islam where Muslims must declare their faith, pray 5 times a day, give to the poor, fast during Ramadan, and make a pilgrimage to Mecca.
Jerusalem City that was dominated at different times by Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Medina City where Mohammed was sent to and where he gathered a following of converts to return to Mecca.
Dark Ages/Early Middle Ages
Crusades Religous wars fought between Christians and Muslims
Samurai
vernacular Everyday language of the common people which Renaissance writers began to use to appeal to a new audience.
Michelangelo Renaissance painter of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome
Triangular Trade Trade system between Europe, Africa and the Americas which sent gold and slaves to the Americas and sugar, molasses, and cotton to Europe
Mercantilism Economic system adopted by European monarchs to build their wealth and power by exporting more goods than they imported.
Jean Jacques Rousseau Enlightenment thinker who wrote The Social Contract where he stated the goverments put too much control on people and if left alone would basically do and act good.
Constantinople Capital of the eastern Roman and Byzantine Empire which would later be renamed Istanbul
Orthodox Christianity Eastern branch that developed after the Great Schism during the Byzantine Empire
Divine Right of Kings The idea that absolute rulers were appointed by and ruled with the authority of God.
English Bill of Rights Acts of British Parliament which ensured the end of absolute monarchs and put the government in control of the country as well as giving citizens rights such as trial by jury
Declaration of Independence Document written by English colonists in America to King George III listing their reasons for breaking away from his rule.
Marie Antionette Queen of France who was nicknamed "Madame Deficit" due to her outrageous spending while the people were starving.
guillotine Beheading device used during the French Revoluton.
indulgence payment made to the Catholic church for forgiveness of sin and a way to get to heaven
Joan of Arc Seventeen year old who would lead French troops to victory against the English and would later be burned at the stake for witchcraft.
Created by: jagrupposo