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Human Legacy Ch. 7

The Industrial Revolution

mass production the system of manufacturing large numbers of identical parts which made parts easier to replace or repair; there were more goods for people to buy
assembly line a mass-production process in which a product is moved forward through many work stations, where workers perform specific tasks
factory a place where goods are manufactures in mass quantity
Eli Whitney American inventor;he invented the cotton gin,which removes seeds from raw cotton blossoms more efficiently than by hand
Samuel Slater British mill-worker that fled to the U.S. with knowledge of Arkwright machinery
Jethro Tull British inventor; he invented the seed drill
strike a work stoppage
factors of production all the business and resources (capital-entrepreneurs-land-labor) "CELL" that produce and sell all the goods and services
enclosure movement a process in Europe from 1700s to mid-1800s where landowners fenced small fields to create large farms, allowing for more efficient farming methods and increased food supply; it displaced farmers, forcing them to live in cities
cottage industry a usually small-scale industry carried on at home by family members using their own equipment
Luddites a group named after a fictitious General Ned Ludd, that opposed machines that were "hurtful to to commonality"; they burned factories and smashed machines
laissez-faire a business system in which companies conduct their businesses without interference by the government
communism an economic and political system in which the government owns the means of production and has a central authority to control economic planning (goal- no social classes)
Karl Marx German social philosopher and chief theorist of modern socialism and communism; he wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1848 with Friedrich Engels
entrepreneur a "risk-taker" who starts a new business within the economic system of capitalism
Standard of Living a measure of the quality of life
Adam Smith Scottish economist; he became the leading advocate of laissez-faire economics and is considered as the "father of modern economics"; he wrote The Wealth of Nations in 1776
immigrate to move to another country to live
interchangeable parts identical parts that can replace each other
Middle Class formed by the factory system; made up of managers and supervisors
Robert Fulton American engineer and inventor; he built the first commercially successful, full-sized steamboat, the Clermont, which led to the development of commercial steamboat ferry services for goods and people
Thomas Malthus English economist and sociologist; his theory that population growth would exceed the growth of food production and that poverty would always exist was used to justify low wages and laws restricting charity to the poor
labor unions an organization representing workers' interests
three causes for the delay of industrialization in France French Revolution, Napoleonic Wars, and British secrecy
Marx's beliefs about communism and the relationship between one's work and one's pay He thought it was unfair that one worker was paid very little for performing manual labor continuously, while another was paid much more for speculating future markets.
the role of wealthy people investing capital in factories entrepreneurs
"Father of American Industry" Samuel Slater
John D. Rockefeller an oil industrialist
Marx and Engels argued that capitalism would lead to- poverty and rebellion
Cornelius Vanderbilt a railroad industrialist
causes for the delay of industrialization in Germany lack of central government
importance of the location of coal mines for factories around 1825 factories were built near coal mines because they needed the coal fr their steam engines
country and colonies that were the first to industrialize Great Britain and its colonies
what Marx believed to be the transition between capitalism and socialism communism
a negative result of the growth of Britain's textile industry was the spread of- slavery
the basis of the Luddite movement they were afraid that machines would take jobs from the weavers
the three countries that became economic leaders and world powers in Europe Britain, Germany, and France
entrepreneurs invested in factories and expected to receive _______ profits
the method required to establish a society based on cooperation and equal distribution of wealth according to Marx and Engels revolution
utilitarianism an ideology that says that the goal of society should be "the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people"
capitalism an economic system in which most businesses are privately owned
socialism an economic system in which the government owns most of the businesses and means of production
proletariat the working class people
Industrial Revolution a period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s
James Watt Scottish inventor ; he developed crucial innovations to make the steam engine more efficient, faster, and better able to power machinery
Richard Arkwright English inventor; in 1769 he patented the spinning frame, which spun stronger, thinner thread
industrialization developing industries for production of goods
Andrew Carnegie American industrialist and humanitarian; he led the expansion of the American steel industry
Robert Owen He tried to create a utopian community
the two workers' rights that were declared illegal in Britain strikes and labor unions
flying shuttle a machine that made most weavers lose their jobs
the early most important natural resource water
factors that enabled the U.S. to industrialize quickly natural resources and labor
middle class had more time and money for _______ leisure
why Britain's colonies were important natural resources and they could sell things to the colonies
the system that replaced mercantilism in Britain laissez-faire