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World History Vocab

TermDefinition
Ayrans Indo-European people who invaded India and Iran in the first millenia B.C.E.
Bronze Age Name given to the earliest civilized era, ca. 4000 to 1000 BCE Importance of the metal bronze for the people of this age in making weapons and tools
Civilization Form of human culture marked by urbanism, metallurgy, and writing
Culture The ways of living built up by a group and passed on from one generation to another
Cuneiform A writing system invented by Sumerians that used a wedge shaped stylus to write on wet clay tablets that were then baked or dried. Also cut in stone
Harappan First civilization of the Indus Valley
Hieroglyphics Complicated writing script of Ancient Egypt. Combined picture writing with pictographs and sound signs
Indo-European Widely distributed language groups that includes most of the language spoken in Europe, Persian, Sanskrit, and their derivatives
Mahabharata and Ramayana Two classical Indian Epics
Mandate of Heaven Chinese belief that heaven entrusts or withdraws a ruler's or a dynasty's right to govern
Mesoamerica Region of North America that extends from the central part of Mexico to Central America
Mesopotamia Modern Iraq, Land between the tigris and Euphrates River
Neolithic Revolution Shift begin 10000 years ago from hunter-gather socities to settled communities
Paleolithic Age Earliest periods when stone tools were used (1,000,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE) "Old Stone"
Pharaoh God-kings of Ancient Egypt
Raja An Indian king
Upanishads Vedic texts most concerned with speculation about the universe
Vedas Sacred texts of the Ancient Aryan invaders of India
Atman-Brahman Unchanging, infinite principle of reality in Indian religion
Atomists School of ancient Greek philosophy founded in 5th century BCE by Leucippus of Miletus and Democritus of Abdera. Held that the world consists of innumerable, tiny,solid,indivisable, and unchangeable particles called atoms.
Brahman Texts dealing with the ritual application of the Vedas
Chun-tzu Confucian term for a person who behaves ethically, in harmony with the cosmic order
Dharma Moral law or duty
Daoism A Chinese philosophy that teaches that lies in becoming one with the Dao, which is the creative principle of the universe
Hindu Term applied to the diverse social, racial, linguistic, and religious groups of India
Jains Indian religious community that teaches compassion for all beings
Karma Indain beliefs that every action has an inevitable effect; Good deeds bring Good results; Evil deeds have evil consequences
Legalism Chinese philosophical school that argued that a strong state was necessary to have a good society
Messiah The redeemer whose coming would establish the kingdom of God on Earth. Christians considered Jesus.
Monotheism Worship of one universal God.
Polis Basic Greek political unit. Greeks thought polis as a community of citizens theoretically descended from a common ancestor.
Polytheism Worship of Many gods
Samsara Emdless cycle of existence of birth and rebirth
Sophists Professional teachers who emerged in Greece in the mid-5th century BCE who were paid to teach techniques of rhetoric, dialectic, and argumentation
Acropolis Religious and civic center of Athens. The site of the Parthenon.
Agora Greek marketplace and civic center. Heart of the social life of the polis.
Areopagus Governing council of Athens, open only to nobility. Name after hill on which it met
Delian League Alliance of Greek states under the leadership of Athens that was formed in 478-477 BCE to resist the Persians
Epicureans School of philosophy by Epicurus of Athens; Sought to liberate people from fear of death and supernatural by teaching that gods took no interest in human affairs and that true happiness consisted in pleasures, which was defined as the absence of pain
Heliocentric Theory Theory that the Earth and other planets revolve around the sun. First proposed by Aristarchos of Samos
Helots Hereditary Spartan Serfs
Hoplite Phalanx Basic unit of Greek warfare in which infantrymen fought in close order, shield to shield, usually eight ranks deep
The Illiad and the Odyssey Epic poems by Homer about the "Dark Age" heroes of Greece who found at Troy. The poems are written down in 8th century BCE after centuries being sung by bards
Logos Divine reason,or fire, which according to the Stoics was the guiding principle in nature
Magna Graecia Meaning "Great Greece" in Latin. The name given by the Roman to southern Italy and Sicily because there were so many Greek colonies in the region
Minoan Bronze age civilization that arose in Crete in 3rd and 2nd millenia BCE
Mycenaean Bronze age civilzation of mainland Greece that was centered at Mycenae
Panhellenic Meaning "all-Greek". Sense of cultural identity that all Greeks felt in common with each other
Peloponnesian War Protracted struggle between Athens and Sparta to dominate Greece between 465 and Athens' final edfeat in 404 BCE
Stoics Philosophical school founded by Zeno of Citium that taught humans could be happy with natural law
Syposion Carefully organized drinking parth that was the center of Greek Aristocratic social life; Featured games, songs poetry and philosophical disputation
Indo-Greeks Bactrian rulers who broke away from the Seleucid Empire to found a state that combined the elements of Greek and Indian civilizations
Satraps Governors of provinces in the Persian Empire
Shahanshah "King of kings", The title of the Persian Ruler
Steepe Peoples Nomadic tribespeople who dwelled on the Eurasian plains from Eastern Europe to the borders of China and Iran. Frequently traded with or invaded more settled cultures
Zoroatrianism A quasi-monotheistic Iranian religion founded by Zoroaster who preached a message of moral reform and exhorted his followers to worship only Ahura Mazda (the Wise Lord)
Kalahari A large desert in southwestern Africa that partially isolates Southern Africa from the rest of the continent
Nilotic Africa The lands among the Nile River
Sahara The world's largest desert. It extends across Africa from the Atlantic to the eastern Sudan. Hindered contact between the Mediterranean and sub-saharan Africa
Sahel An area of steppe and semi-desert that borders the Sahara
Savannah An area of open woodlands and grassy plains
Agape "Love Feast" A common meal that was part of the central ritual of early Christian worship
Arianism Belief that formulated by Arius of Alexandria that Jesus was a created being, neither fully man nor fully God, but something in between
Augustus Title given to Octavian in 27 BCE and borne thereafter by all Roman empires
Catholic "universal" The body of belief held by most Christians enshrined within the church
Censor Official of the Roman Republic charged with conducting the census and compiling the lists of citizens and members of Senate
Council of Nicaea Council of Christian bishops of Nicaea in 325 C.E. that formulated the Nicene Creed
Nicene Creed A statement of Christian belief that rejected Arianism in favor of the doctrine that Christ is both fully human and fully divine
Equestrians "Calvarymen" or "Knights" The Earliest years of the Roman Republic, those who could afford to serve as mounted warriiors
Estrucans A people of central Italy who exerted the most powerful external influence on the early Romans
Eucharist "Thanksgiving". Celebration of the Lord's Supper. Considered the central ritual of worship by most Christians(Holy Communion)
Heretics Persons whose religious beliefs differ from the official doctrines of their faith
Humanitas Roman name for liberal arts education
Imperator Under the Roman republic, the title given to a victorious general. Under Augustus and his successors, it became the title of the ruler of Rome(emperor)
Imperium In ancient Rome, the right to issue commands and to enforce them by fines, arrests, and even corporal and capital punishment
Latifundia Large plantations for growing cash crops owned by wealthy Romans
"Mystery" Religions Cults fo Isis, Mirthra, and Osiris, which promised salvation to those initiated into the secret or "mystery" of their rites
Orthodox "Holding the right opinions" Applied to doctrines of the Catholic Church
Patricians Hereditary upper class of early Republican Rome
Pharisee Group that was most strict in its adherence to Jewish law
Plebians Hereitary lower class of early Republican Rome
Populares Roman politicians who sought to pursue a political career based on the support of the people rather than just an aristocracy
Punic Wars Three wars between Rome and Carthage for dominance of the western Mediterranean that were fought from 264 BCE to 146 BCE
Syncretism In religion, the equating or combining of deities
Tetrarchy Diocletian's system for ruling the Roman Empire by four men with power divided territorially
Tribunes Romans officials who had to be plebians and ere elected by the plebeian assembly to protect plebeians from the arbitrary power of the magistrates
Dyanstic Cycle Word used to describe the rise, decline and fall of China's Imperial Dynasties
Neo-Daoism A revival of Daoist "mysterious learning" that flourished as a reaction against confucianism during the Han Dynasty
Nirvana In Buddhism the attainment of release from the wheel of karma
Silk Road Trade route from China to the West that stretched across Central Asia
Amitabha Buddha Buddhist Lord of the Western Paradise, or pure land
Censorate Branch of the imperial Chinese government that acted as a watchdog, reporting instances of misgovernment directly to the emperor and remonstrating when it consedered the emperor's behavior improper
Zen A form of Buddhism, which taught Buddha was only a man and exhorted each person to attain enlightenment by his or her own efforts
Bakufu "tent governement" Military regime that governed Japan under Shoguns
Kamikaze "divine winds" that sank a portion fo the invading Mongol fleet in Japan in 1281
Pure Land Buddhism Variety of Japanese Buddhism that maintained that only faith was necessary for salvation
Samurai Professional Japanese warriors
Shinto "the way of the gods" The animistic worship of the forces of nature that is indigenous religion Japan
Shogun Military official who was actual ruler of Japan in the emperor's name from the late 1100s until the mid-19th century
Tenno "heavenly emperor" The official title of the emperor of Japan
Bodhisattva A "Buddha to be" who postpones his own nirvana until he has helped all other beings become enlightened
Jatis The many subgroups that make up the Hindu caste system
Manichaeism A dualistic and moralistic view of reality in which good and evil, spirit and mater warred with each other
Stupa A Buddhist Shrine
Theravada The "Way of the Elders" A school of Buddhism that emphasized the monastic ideal
Varnas The four main classes that form the basis of Hindu caste relations
Caliphate Spiritual and temporal rule of the Muslim community
Emir Islamic military commander
Hadith Saying or action ascribed to Muhammad
Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are enjoined to perform at least once in their lifetime
Hegira Flight of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 C.E. Marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar
Imam Islamic Prayer leaders
Islam "submissions". Religion founded by the prophet Muhammad
Jihad "struggles in the path of god" Although not necessarily imply violence, often interpeted to mean holy war in the name of Islam
Ka'ba A black meteorite in the city of Mecca that became Islam's holiest shrine
Qur'an "A reciting" Islamic bible, which Muslim believe God revealed to the prophet Muhammad
Shi'a Muslims who trace their beliefs back to the calip Ali (Muhammad's son-inlaw) who was assassinated in 661 CE
Sunna "tradition" Dominant Islamic Group
Ulama "Persons with correct knowledge" Islamic scholary elite who serves a social function similar to the Christian clergy
Umma Islamic community
Apostolic Primacy Doctrine that the popes are the direct successors to the Apostle Peter and as such heads of the church
Demesne Part of a manor that was cultivated directly for the lord of the manor
Fealty Oath of loyalty by vassal to a lord, promising to perform specified services
Feudal Society Social, political, military, and economic system that prevailed in the Middle Ages and beyond in some parts of Europe
Fief Land granted to a vassal in exchange for services, usually military
Magyars Majority ethnic group in Hungary
Manor Village farms owned by lords
Papal States Territory in central Italy ruled by the pope until 1870
Plentitude of Power Teaching that popes have power over all other Bishops of the church
Serf Peasants tied to the land they tilled
Three-Field System Medieval innovation that increased the amount of land under cultivation by leaving only one-third fallow in a given year
Vassal Person granted an estate or cash payments in return for accepting the obligation to render services to a lord
Bhatki Hindu devotional movements
Ghazis Warriors who carried Islam by force of arms to pagan groups
Madrasa Islamic College of higher learning
Othopraxy Correct practice of a religion
Reconquista Christian reconquest of Spain from the Muslims from 1000 to 1492
Sufi Movement within Islam that emphasized the spiritual and Mystical
Sultan Muslim royal title that meant "authority"
Urdu-Hindi Language that combines Persian-Arabic and native Indian elements. Urdu is Muslim version and Hindi is Hindu version.
Calpulli Wards into which the Aztec capital, Tenochitilan,was divided
Chicha Maize beer brewed by the mamamkuna for the Inca elite
Long Count Mayan calendar that dated from a fixed point in the past
Mexica Aztecs' names for themselves
Mita Inca system of forced labor in return for gifts and ritual entertainment
Mitimaqs Communities whom the Incas forced to settle in designated regions for strategiv purposes
Manakuna Inca women who lived priveleged but celibat lives and had important economic and cultural roles
Obsidian Hard volcanic glass that was widely used in Mesoamerica
Pipiltin Aztec bureaucrats and priests
Quipu Knotted string used by Andean peoples from recordkeeping
Quechua Inca Language
Tlatoani Aztec Ruler
Tetcutin Subordinate Aztec lords
Black Death Bubonic Plague that killed millions in the 14th century
Chiaroscuro Use of shading to enhanace naturalness in painting and drawing
Crusades Religous wars directed by the church against infidels and heretics
Curia Papal government
Golden Horde Name given to the Mongol rulers of Russia from 1240-1480
Great Schism Apperance of two and at times three rival popes between 1378 and 1415
Guild Association of merchants or craftsment that offered protection to its members and set rules for their work and products
Holy Roman Empire Revival of the old Roman Empire, based mainly in Germany and northern Italy that endured from 870-1806
Humanism Romance name for liberal arts education
Magna Carta The "Great Charter" limiting royal power, which the English nobility forced King John to sign in 1215
Mannerism A style of art in the mid-late 16th century that permitted artists to express their own "manner" or feelings in contrast to the symmetry and simplicity of the art of the High Renaissance
Regular Clergy Monks and Nuns who belong to religious orders
Renaissance Revival of learning and the supplanting of traditional religious beliefs by new secular and scientfic values that begin in Italy in 14th and 15th centuries
Scholasticism study based on logic and dialectic that dominated the medieval schools. It assumed that truth already existed; students had only to organize, elucidate, and defend knowledge learned from authoritative texts those of Aristotle and the Church Fathers
Secular Clergy Parish clergy who did not belong to a religious order
Studia Humanitatis During the Renaissance, a liberal arts program of study that embraced grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, philosophy, and politics
Taille Direct tax on French peasantry
Vernacular Everyday language spoken by the people as opposed to Latin
Created by: cnabda