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Modern Africa

Urbanization growth of cities as a result of Industrial Revolution
Apartheid ridged separation of races by law in South Africa
Pan-Africanism nationalist movement that began in the early 1900’s and called for unifying all of Africa
Negritude movement African movement led by the Senegalese poet Leopold Sedar Senghor in 1930’s; it strengthened Pan-Africanism by encouraging Africans to value their heritage
Socialism system in which the government owns and operates major businesses and controls other parts of the economy
Single party rule established to build national unity; choose between two more candidates from the same party
Pass laws enacted to control the movement of black workers; workers living in a town had to carry a passbook including a record of where they could travel or work, their tax payments and a record of any criminal convictions
Homeland areas assigned by government where black ethnic groups had to live; located in dry, infertile areas
Townships (in South Africa) a segregated residential settlement for blacks, located outside a city or town.
Biafra a region of E Nigeria, formerly a local government region: seceded as an independent republic (1967--70) during the Civil War, but defeated by Nigerian government forces; 1 million people died in the war
Afrikaners a White native of the Republic of South Africa whose mother tongue is Afrikaans
Sharpeville (near Johannesburg) place where 60 peaceful demonstrators were killed by government forces in 1960
Soweto (outside Johannesburg) 1976 students protested against a new law requiring the use of Afrikaans( language of white South Africans who are descended from Dutch settlers) in all public schools Government responded with violence and the demonstrations spread.
ANC African National Congress
Nelson Mandela black leader who supported non-violent protests; imprisoned for life in 1964
Desmond Tutu black South African leader; an archbishop
Robert Mugabe leader of the independence struggle; won a majority in the national elections in 1980; urged blacks and whites to set aside difference and world together to rebuild the nation
Rwandan genocide Ethnic tensions resulted in a massacre of 800,000
Sierra Leone West African country where civil wars left thousands dead and badly hurt the economy
Darfar crisis In early 2003, the struggle for land and power in the western Sudanese region of Darfur erupted into violence between Sudanese government forces and rebel groups protesting the marginalization of the region's black African ethnic groups by the Muslim cent
Janjaweed Arab militias who began policies of ethnic cleansing
AIDS crisis since late 1970’s has swept across much of the continent infecting millions of African men and women
Created by: jorge.meraz9