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MWCH Enlightenment

QuestionAnswer
During the Medieval Ages what did people believe of the world? The earth was immovable located at the center of the universe
What is the theory that the earth is the center of the world? geocentric theory
Who thought that the earth was the center of the world? Aristotle
What is the new way of thinking of the natural world during the 1500's? Scientific Revolution
What was the Scientific Revolution based on? careful observation and willingness to questions accepted beliefs
What helped the scientific revolution spread? explorers traveling to Asia, Africa, American saw new people and animals. New scientific research in astronomy and mathematics needing new updated instruments
1st challenge to scientific thinking? astronomy
Who is Nicolaus Copernicus? Polish cleric and astronomer who thought the sun stood at the center of the universe.
Theory that said that the sun was the center of the universe - "sun centered"? Heliocentric Theory
Who wrote the book "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies"? Nicolaus Copernicus
Who recorded the movements of the planets? Brahe
Who proved that planets revolve around around the sun in elliptical orbits instead of circles? Johannes Kepler
Who wrote the book Starry Messenger? Galileo Galilei
Who used a telescope to study the planets? Galileo Galilei
Who found that Jupiter had 4 moons? Galileo Galilei
Who published Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems supporting Copernican theory? Galileo Galilei
Arrested and in trouble with the Catholic Church for publishing ideas that the sun was the center of the universe? Galileo Galilei
What is the logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas? scientific method
How does the scientific method begin? with a problem or question arising from an observation
2nd step in a scientific method? form a hypothesis
How is a hypothesis tested? by an experiment or on the basis of data
What is a conclusion? Confirms or disproves a hypothesis
Francis Bacon? Englishman who believed that a better understanding of the world would improve people's lives?
Who attached medieval scholars for relying too heavily on the conclusions of Aristotle? Francis Bacon
Who urged scientists to experiment and then draw conclusions? Francis Bacon
What is the approach that urged scientists to experiment and then draw a conclusion? empiricism or experimental method
What linked algebra and geometry? analytically geometry
who developed analytically geometry? Rene Descartes
Relied on mathematics and logic to gain knowledge? Rene Descartes
Who believed that everything should be doubted until proven by reason? Rene Descartes
"I think, therefore I am"? Rene Descartes
Modern scientific methods are based on who's ideas? Beacon and Descartes
Compare old science to new science? Old Science - relied on ancient authorities, church teachings, common sense. New Science - use of observations, experimentation to gather knowledge and draw conclusions about the physical world
Who discovered that the same force ruled motion of the planets and all matter on earth and space? Isaac Newton
Key idea that linked motion in the heavens with motion on earth? universal gravitation
Universal gravitation law? every object in the universe attracts every other object
Who published The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy? Newton
Who described the universe like a clock? Newton
One of the most important scientific books ever written? The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
Who invented the first microscope? Zacharias Janssen
Used a microscope to observe bacteria swimming in tooth scrapings? van Leeuwenhoek
Who developed the first mercury barometer? Torricelli
Who made the first thermometer using mercury in glass - showing freezing at 32? Fahrenheit
Thermometer who showed freezing at 0? Celsius
Middle ages doctors based their beliefs on who, who only studied the anatomy of pics and other animals? Galen
Dissected human corpses and disproved Galen? Andreas Vesalius
Who wrote the book "On the Structure of the Human Body" filled with drawings of human organs, bones, and muscles? Vesalius
Created a vaccine to prevent small pox? Edward Jenner
World's first vaccination? Small pox
Who created the first vaccination? Edward Jenner
Who pioneered the scientific method in chemistry? Robert Boyle
Founder of modern chemistry? Robert Boyle
Who wrote the Skeptical Chemist? Boyle
Boyle's Law? explains who the volume, temperature, and pressure of gas affects each other
Main steps of the scientific method? 1. problem of question 2. hypothesis 3. tested in an experiment or gathering of data 4. analyze and interpret data 5. form a conclusion
Difference between Heliocentric theory and geocentric theory? Heliocentric theory - sun in center of universe Geocentric theorgy - earth is center of universe
A new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems? Enlightenment or Age of Reason
Who wrote Leviathan? Hobbes
Who thought that all humans were naturally selfish and wicked? Hobbes
Thought we needed government to keep order otherwise there would be war and life would be solitary poor, nasty? Hobbes
people give up rights and the would get law and order? social contract
ruler needed total power, total monarch? Hobbes
What is a leviathan? sea monster
What is the purpose of Hobbes view of a government? to impose order and demand obedience
Old view of government or monarch? Divine right
Locke's view? He believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves. They had the natural ability to govern their own affairs and look after the welfare of society.
Favored self-government? Locke
Who believed all people are born free and equal? Locke
Locke's three natural rights? 1. Life 2. Liberty 3. Property
Purpose of government? to protect the 3 natural rights, life, liberty and property
Foundation of modern democracy? Locke - government's power comes from the consent of the people
Height of the Enlightenment? 1700
Place for people to discuss politics and ideas? Paris
social critics of the 1700's are called? philosophes - French word for philosophers
Belief of philosophes? people could apply reason to all aspects of life
5 concepts of philosophes? 1. Reason 2. Nature 3. Happiness 4. Progress 5. Liberty
Philosopher who used satire against his opponents? Voltaire
"I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it"? Voltaire
Used his pen to fight against intolerance, prejudice, and superstition? Voltaire
Devoted himself to the study of political liberty? Montesquieu
Believed Britain was the best-governed and most politically balance country of his day? Montesquieu
What did Montesquieu like about the British government? separation of powers among different branches
Who wrote "On the Spirit of Laws"? Montesquieu
Theme of "On the Spirit of Laws"? separation of power would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of the government.
Basis for the United States Constitution? Montesquieu's idea of checks and balances
Passionate about individual freedoms? Jean Jacques Rousseau
How did Rousseau disagree with other enlightenment thinkers? He believed that civilization corrupted people's natural goodness. Others believed reason, science improved life.
Rousseau view on government? freely formed by the people and guided by the general will of society - a direct democracy.
Wrote social contract? Rousseau
Theme of Social contract? people agree to give up some of their freedom in favor of the common good
Difference between Hobbes and Rousseau? Hobbes - social contract was an agreement between a society and its government. Rousseau believed in an agreement among free individuals to create a society and government
Idea's inspired many leaders of the the French Revolution to overthrow the monarchy? Rousseau
Who believed that laws existed to preserve social order not to avenge crimes? Cesare Beccaria
Beccaria's belief of a criminal in prison and on trial? should receive a speedy trial, not be tortured, punishment should be based on the seriousness of the crime, abolish capital punishment.
Beccaria's view of justice? government should seek the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
Who wrote "A Serious Proposal to the Ladies"? Mary Astell
"If all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves?" Astell
Who wrote "A Vindication of the Rights of Women"? Mary Wollstonecraft
What is Wollstonecraft's view? Women, like men , need education to become virtuous and useful
Wollstonecraft urged women to do what? enter the field of medicine and politics
How did Emilie du Charelet help the enlightenment of women? translated Newton's work from Latin into French
Three long term effects of the Enlightenment? 1. Belief in Progress - new scientific discoveries, human reason can solve problems, social equality 2. A More Secular Outlook - people questioned openly their religious beliefs and teaching of the church 3. Importance of the Individual -
Women gatherings during the enlightenment period? salons
Created by: Brea.Zellner