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Ch. 5 - Absolutism

Philip II The son of Charles V; ruled a global Spanish Empire; unsuccessfully attacked England with Spanish Armada in 1588.
absolute monarch monarchs who held all the power within their state. Short term effects included managing religious and social gatherings, collecting taxes to fight wars/building projects. Long term effects included riots/revolutions among the people.
divine right The idea that absolute monarchs received their power from God and no one could take it away. It helped protect a king’s/queen’s power, and allowed them to accomplish all of their goals.
Edict of Nantes A proclamation by Henry IV that protected religious freedom for Huguenots in France for nearly 100 years. It kept religious conflicts at bay until Louis XIV revoked it in 1685.
Cardinal Richelieu The advisor to Louis XIII who ruled until the king was able to, and mentored Cardinal Mazarin, who would advised Louis XIV. He helped make the monarch more powerful by breaking up the power of the Huguenots and nobles
Louis XIV King of France from 1643-1715; He was the prime example of an absolute monarch. He reduced the power of the nobles and the Church; built the palace at Versailles (which left France in immense debt); and established France as a major power in Europe.
intendent Government agents who collected taxes and administered justice for Louis XIV. They helped Louis XIV take power from the nobles by keeping an eye on the nobles territories while they were at Versailles.
Jean Baptiste Colbert He was Louis XIV’s finance minister. He promoted mercantilism to help make France wealthy and self-sufficient. One way of doing this was to give tax benefits to French companies.
Ivan the Terrible He was the czar of Russia who came to power in 1533. His reign was broken up into a good period and a bad period, which began after his wife died. During this time, he created the oprichniki to kill traitors.
boyar They were Russian nobles, who struggled to take power from the czar, and were targeted by Ivan the Terrible’s oprichniki for allegedly killing his wife.
Peter the Great A member of the Romanov family; He was one of Russia’s greatest czar and reformers. His goal was to westernize Russia. One example of this westernization was __________________________.
westernization This process of using Western Europe (i.e. France, England, Italy, Spain) as an example for change. Through this process Russia was made stronger. One example would be Peter the Great’s introduction of potatoes to the Russian diet.
Charles I He was the son of James I; As king of England, who feuded with Parliament over money/collection of taxes. After losing a civil war, he was put on trial and executed.
English Civil War The war between the Roundheads and the Royalists/Cavaliers. The Roundheads were lead by the Oliver Cromwell. The outcome was that Charles I was removed from power and executed.
Restoration After Cromwell’s rule ended, Charles II restored the monarchy in England. In 1679, Parliament limited Charles II’s power when they passed a law guaranteeing habeas corpus.
habeas corpus This law gave prisoners the right to obtain a document that gave them the opportunity to be brought before a judge who had to specify the charges against the prisoner. This law limited Charles II’s power.
Glorious Revolution A bloodless revolution that occurred when James II fled to France. This occurred when his daughter, Mary, and her husband, William of Orange, invaded England at the request of members of Parliament.
constitutional monarchy Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a king or queen acts as Head of State. The ability to make and pass legislation resides with an elected Parliament. When William and Mary were coronated, they agreed to be partners with Parliament.
cabinet A group of government ministers who acted in the ruler’s name while representing the major party in Parliament. This group was created to keep the English govt from coming to a standstill because of a disagreement between Parliament and the monarch.
Created by: calebgunnels