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Africa Govt & Econ

Government and Economics of Africa Test Study Guide

Autocracy One person has total power
Oligarchy A small group of people rule
Democracy Citizens have the right to vote for their leaders
Presidential Democracy Citizens vote for president; the president is both the head of state and head of government
Parliamentary Democracy Citizens elect members to parliament, members of parliament select the prime minister; the prime minister is the head of government
Unitary The central government has control
Confederation Independent countries have the power and agree to give a little to the central government
Federal Power is divided between federal, regional, and local governments
Dictatorship One person rules by force, often relying on the military
3 Types of Citizen Participation Democracy, Oligarchy, Autocracy
3 Types of Distribution of Power Unitary, Federal, Confederation
GDP Gross Domestic Product; the total value of goods and services produced in a country in a year
Entrepreneurship A person willing to risk their time and money in a new product or improved product
Human Capital The value of a person's skills and education
Capital Goods Goods used to make other goods
Natural Resources Gifts from the Earth
Specialization When countries focus on producing what they can produce easily and trade for what they need
Interdependence When countries rely on each other for goods and services; usually a result of specialization
Market Economy Supply and demand determine what is produced, how much is produced, and for whom it is produced
Command Economy The government determines what is produced, how much is produced, and for whom it is produced.
Traditional Economy Traditions and customs determine what is produced, how much is produced, and for whom it is produced.
Mixed Economy A combination of government and supply and demand control economic decisions
Export Goods that are sent out of the country to another
Import Goods that are brought into a country from another
Quota A limit on imports
Tariff A tax on imports
Embargo A refusal to trade with a country
The higher the literacy rate.... the higher the standard of living
What type of government does Kenya have? Republic and presidential democracy
What type of government does South Africa have? Republic and parliamentary democracy
Why has it been hard to create stable governments in Africa? Civil war and conflict between ethnic and religious groups
What is famine? What causes it? A period of time when there is a shortage of food caused by civil war, climate change, disease
Which region of Africa is most at risk for famine? Sub-Saharan Africa
Which trade barrier did the US place on South Africa in response to apartheid? embargo
What are the 4 factors of growth? human capital, capital goods, natural resources, entrepreneurship
What are the 3 economic trade barriers? quota, embargo, and tariff
How are standard of living and GDP related? the higher the GDP, the higher the standard of living
Poverty not having enough money to buy basic supplies
What are the benefits of free (voluntary) trade? increased variety; lower priced goods because of competition; companies make more money
What are the most valuable natural resources found in Africa? (4) Oil, diamonds, uranium, and gold
What is Nigeria's most valuable natural resource? Oil
What are South Africa's most valuable natural resources? Diamonds, Gold, and Uranium
How are the Republic of Kenya and the Republic of South Africa different? Kenya is a presidential democracy, while South Africa is a parliamentary democracy.
How are the educational systems in Kenya similar and different? Boys in both countries go to school more frequently than girls. Kenya has a higher literacy rate. Sudan has been hurt by civil war.
Why did South Sudan want to become independent from Sudan? South Sudan is culturally and religiously different from Sudan. South Sudan is mainly Christian, while Sudan is mainly Muslim.
How has investment in the four factors of growth impacted the economies of South Africa and Nigeria? South Africa has invested in all four factors of growth and their economy is steadily growing. Nigeria has only invested in natural resources, so their economy is not growing very much.
Between South Africa and Nigeria, which country has a faster growing economy? Why? South Africa because they invest in the four factors of economic growth.
Why is it hard to combat AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa? Lack of funding for education and prevention programs; government instability
Created by: MsBentley