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Emerging Europe

Emerging Europe, Byzantine Empire, Middle Ages

Pope the bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church
Monk a man who separates himself from ordinary human society in order to dedicate himself to God
Monasticism practice of living the life of a monk
Saint Benedict wrote a set of rules to guide a community of monks he founded
Missionary a person sent out to carry a religious message
Nun a woman who separates herself from ordinary human society in order to dedicate herself to God; live in convents headed by abbesses
Abbess the head of a convent
Charlemagne Pépin's son who became the new Frankish king (Charles the Great)
Carolingian Empire during his long rule from 768 to 814, Charlemagne greatly expanded the Frankish kingdom known as the....
Magyars people from western Asia who moved into central Europe at the end of the ninth century, settles on the plains of Hungary, and invaded western Europe
Vikings germanic people, Norsemen or Northmen of Scandinavia
Normandy land at the mouth of the Seine River which became a section of France that was given to a band of Vikings from a Frankish leader
Feudalism political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages when royal governments were no longer able to defend their subjects; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
Vassal under feudalism, a man who served a lord in a military capacity
Knight under feudalism, a member of the heavily armored cavalry
Fief under feudalism, a grant of land made to a vassal; the vassal held political authority within his fief
Feudal contract under feudalism, the unwritten rules that determined the relationship between a lord and his vassal
Tournament under feudalism, a series of martial activities such as jousts designed to keep knights busy during peacetime and help them prepare for war
Chivalry in the Middle Ages, the ideal of civilized behavior that developed among the nobility; it was a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold
Eleanor of Acquitaine one of the most remarkable personalities of twelfth-century Europe
William of Normandy lead an army of heavily armed knights and landed on the coast of England and soundly defeated King Herold and his foot soldiers at the Battle of Hastings.
Common law a uniform system of law that developed in England based on court decisions and on customs and usage rather than on written law codes; replaced law codes that varied from place to place
Magna Carta the “Great Charter” of rights, which King John was forced to sign by the English nobles at Runnymeade in 1215
Parliament in thirteenth-century England, the representative government that emerged; it was composed of two knights from every county, two people from every town, and all of the nobles and bishops throughout England
Phillip II Augustus Reigned from 1180-1223, was a turning point in the french monarchy, and expanded its income and power.
Estate one of the three classes into which French society was divided before the revolution: the clergy (first estate), the nobles (second estate), and the townspeople (third estate); a landed property usually with a large house on it
Kiev Where Viking leader, Oleg, settled and what is now present day Kyiv
Constantinople the center of the Roman Empire in the East
Justinian became emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire in 527 and was determined to reestablish the Roman Empire in the entire Mediterranean world
Palestine a territory in the Middle East on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea
Balkans the countries occupying the part of southeastern Europe
Patriarch head of the Eastern Orthodox Church and was appointed by the emperor
Schism separation between the two great branches of Christianity
Crusades European Christians carried out a series of military expeditions to grain the Holy Land from the Muslims
Infidel unbeilevers
Saladin In 1187, the holy city of Jerusalem fell to Muslim forces under...
Manor in medieval Europe, an agricultural estate that a lord ran and peasants worked
Serfs in medieval Europe, a peasant legally bound to the land who had to provide labor services, pay rents, and be subject to the lord’s control
Commercial capitalism economic system in which people invest in trade or goods to make profits
Theology the study of religion and God
Bourgeoisie the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people
Patricians wealthy, powerful landowners, they formed the ruling class in the Roman Republic
Guilds a business association that is associated with a particular trade or craft and played a leading role in the economic life of medieval cities
Apprentice one who learns a trade by practical experience under skilled craftspeople
Lay investiture a practice when a secular, or lay, rulers usually chose nominees to Church offices and gave them the symbols of their office
Pope Gregory 7th decided to fight the practice of lay investiture
Concordat of Worms an agreement in 1122. Under it, a bishop in Germany was first elected by church officials
Pope Innocent 3rd initiated the fourth crusade
Interdict a decree by the pope that forbade priests to give the sacraments of the Church to the people
Sacrements Christian rites
Hildegard of Bingen became abbess of a religious house for females in westen Germany
Franciscans founded by Sint Francis of Assisi, took vows of absolute poverty, agreeing to reject all property and live by working and begging for their food
Dominicans founded by Dominic de Guzmán, were well known for their roles as examiners of people suspected of heresy
Heresy the denial of basic Church doctrines
Inquisition Holy Office, a court that developed a reglar procedure to find and try heretics
Relic bones or other objects connected with saints; considered worthy of worship by the faithful
Scholasticism a medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason
Aristotle a philosopher who reached his conclusions by rational thought, not by faith, and his ideas sometimes contradicted Church teachings
Saint Thomas Acquinas made the most famous attempt to reconcile Aristotle with doctrines of Christianity, best known for his summa theologica
Vernacular the language of everyday speech in a particular region
Chanson de geste a type of vernacular literature, this heroic epic was popular in medieval Europe and described battles and political contests
Black Death the most devastating natural disaster in European history
Anti-Semitism hostility toward Jews
Great Schism lasted from 1378 to 1417, divided Europe
Agincourt a battle in 1415. The heavy, armor-plated French knights tried to attack Henry's forces across a muddy field, and were disastrously defeated. The English were masters of northern France
Joan of Arc the daughter of prosperous peasants, was a deeply religious person
Isabella married Ferdinand of Aragon
Ferdinand married Isabella of Castile
Created by: tessa320