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FNS 6: Sleep/Arousal

Neuro Lecture 6: Sleep/Arousal

What are some theories as to the function of sleep? conservation of metabolic energy, cognition, thermoregulation, neural maturation/mental health
What happens to circadian rhythms with the removal of cues (light)? they shift later, but not abolished; 26.1-ish hours waking up later each day and going to bed later
Which tract transmits light cues to the hypothalamus? retinohypothalamic tract
Through which hypothalamic nucleus does light entrain a circadian rhythm? Suprachiasmatic nucleus
What is the photopigment contained in special ganglion cells in the retina? melanopsin
Is the suprachiasmatic nucleus responsible for sleep induction? Does it regulate the timing of sleep? It is not responsible for induction, but does regulate timing of sleep
Where is melatonin synthesized? pineal gland
Is melatonin elevated or depressed in the dark? elevated
Is aging associated with decreased or increased melatonin synthesis? decreased
During sleep, what happens to motor activity and response to stimulation? decreased (both)
Is sleep passive? no
Is sleep uniform? no
How many stages of non-REM sleep are there? 4
How are the stages of non-REM sleep classified? How do they distinguish them? EEG, EMG, and EOG (cortical, muscle, and eye electrical activity)
What are the advantages and disadvantages of EEG? advantages- easy, cheap, non-invasive; disadvantages- low spatial resolution
Is an EEG a correlate of deep neuronal activity? Or shallow? deep
Which types of neurons are reflected in EEG? cortical pyramidal neurons + thalamocortical inputs to these neurons
What is 1 word to describe the pattern of thalamocortical neurons during sleep? oscillatory
What are 2 words to describe the pattern of thalamocortical neurons upon stimulation of the brain stem (when awake)? tonically active
What specifically causes wakefulness (from sleep)? stimulation of rostral RAS (reticular activating system)
What happens with a lesion of the RAS? coma
What specifically causes sleep? slow electrical stimulation of the thalamus
What type of NT is used in RAS neurons at the pons-midbrain junction? cholinergic (ACh)
What type of NT is used in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus? GABAergic neurons
During non-REM sleep, is neuronal activity high or low? low
During non-REM sleep, are metabolic rate and brain temperature high or low? low
During non-REM sleep, does sympathetic outflow increase or decrease? decrease
During non-REM sleep, does parasympathetic outflow increase or decrease? increase
During non-REM sleep, are muscle tone and reflexes intact or inhibited? intact
During non-REM sleep, is there any skeletal muscle activity? eye movements? some skeletal muscle activity and slow eye-rolling movements
Which types of brain waves are present in awake stages? beta (alert) and alpha (restful) *desynchronized
Which types of brain waves are present in stage 1 of non-REM sleep? Hz? alpha (10Hz)
Which types of brain waves are present in stage 2 of non-REM sleep? Hz? “sleep spindles” or sinusoidal waves (12-14 Hz)
Which types of brain waves are present in stage 3 of non-REM sleep? Hz? delta- high amplitude slow (0.5-2 Hz)
Which types of brain waves are present in stage 4 of non-REM sleep? slow wave activity
Is REM sleep an active or inactive form of sleep? active
Why is REM sleep weird? 1 word description? Paradoxical sleep- brain temp & metabolic rate rise; body temp drifts toward ambient; muscle tone lost; somatic sensation diminished
How long is a sleep cycle? ~90 minutes through non-REM and REM stages
What is stage 1 functionally? Is it repeated each sleep cycle? transition between wakefulness to sleep- not repeated each cycle
What happens to the REM stage with each cycle? gets longer
Where are nuclei that regulate REM sleep? pons-midbrain junction
What happens at the pons-midbrain junction during REM sleep to the dorsal column nuclei and somatic sensation? inhibition of the dorsal column nuclei and decreased sensation
What happens at the pons-midbrain junction during REM sleep to the ventral horn LMNs and skeletal muscles? inhibited ventral LMN and muscle paralysis
Which NT regulates dorsal column, sensation, ventral horn LMN, and muscle paralysis during REM sleep at the pons-midbrain junction? GABA
What happens to the cerebral cortex during REM sleep? activation of certain parts- dreaming?
Which hypothalamic nucleus contains CRF (and what is it?)? paraventricular nucleus- corticotropin-releasing factor
What is the mechanism by which cortisol is released from the adrenal glands? parvocellular neurons in the PVN of the hypothalamus release CRF into pituitary portal system; CRF stimulates anterior pituitary to make ACTH, which stimulates the cortisol release in adrenal glands
What behavioral response is CRF related to? stress
Where in the hypothalamus are orexin/hypocretin neurons located? lateral hypothalamic area
Stimulation of which hypothalamic nucleus induces sleep? ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO)
Which nucleus in the hypothalamus is the endogenous circadian pace-maker? suprachiasmatic nucleus
Which nucleus has histamine-containing neurons? tuberomamillary nucleus
Which substance may act in preoptic nuclei and basal forebrain to promote sleep? adenosine
Where is cortical activation primarily seen during REM sleep? in limbic-related areas (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus)
Where is cortical inhibition primarily seen during REM sleep? frontal and posterior cingulate cortices
Up to what % of the population are affected by chronic/extended sleep difficulty? 20%
Which conditions are more prevalent, too much sleep or not enough sleep? lack of sleep
What % of the population suffers from chronic insomnia? 15%
Which % of the population suffers from excessive sleepiness? 2%
Do more people seek treatment for excessive sleepiness or chronic insomnia? excessive sleepiness
What are 4 symptoms of narcolepsy that MAY occur? persistent daytime sleepiness (biggest), cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations
What is cataplexy? sudden loss of muscle tone with preserved consciousness
What is sleep paralysis? patients begin with REM sleep
What are hypnagogic hallucinations? vivid, dream-like hallucinations
What are most cases of narcolepsy caused by? loss of hypothalamic neurons that contain orexin (hypocretin)
What are 2 options for treatment of narcolepsy? sleep aids at night or psychostimulants/amphetamines during the day
What is obstructive sleep apnea? What can occur over time as a result? brief arousals from sleep due to upper airway obstruction, daytime sleepiness- cardiovascular complications (arrhythmias, HTN)
What is insomnia? What is one extreme example inability to sleep- fatal familial insomnia is a rare brain disease
What is periodic limb movement disorder? restless leg, for example
What are parasomnias? intrusion of normal waking activities into sleep; sleep walking, talking, eating, bed-wetting
How does the total amount of sleep/day change as we age? decreases
Created by: mbyess
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