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(1757 - 1836) He was the King of France who believed in absolutism. He only ruled for 6 years before the July Revolution of 1830 began. He was abdicated and fled to England. Charles X
(1773 - 1850) He was the King of France. Known as the “citizen king” because he owed his throne to the people. He strolled the streets, shaking hands with the well wishers. He was the last king to rule France and was abdicated and exiled to England. Louis Philippe
(1808 - 1873) He was the first President of the French Republic (1848) and ruler of the Second French Empire (1852). He presented himself as a man who cared about social issues such as poverty. He proclaimed himself emperor, (Napoleon III). Louis Napoleon
Between 1804 and 1817, Serbs suffered terrible defeats. However they achieved self-rule, within the Ottoman Empire. They gained an identity and revived Slavic literature and culture. “one who gives oneself their own law” Autonomy
(1848 - 1849) Many German states met and its the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany. “We are to create a constitution for Germany, for the whole land.” Frankfurt Assembly
In 1852 appointed as prime minister. He believed in Realpolitik and was a monarchist devoted to the interests of his royal master. He reformed Sardinia’s economy by improving agriculture, railroads, and encouraged commerce by supporting free trade. Cavour
After 1848 this Italian nationalist movement, passed to the small Kingdom of Sardinia. The Resurgence was the political and social movement that agglomerated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of Italy. Risorgimento
(1805 - 1872) He was nicknamed The Beating Heart of Italy. Giuseppe was an Italian politician, journalist, and activist for the unification of Italy. His opera I Lombardi told of Italian heroism. Mazzini
(1807 - 1882) An Italian general and politician and considered one of Italy’s “fathers of the fatherhood”. He wanted to create an Italian republic. By 1860 he had recruited a force of 1,000 “Red Shirts” to Sicily where he was victorious. Garibaldi
(1820 - 1878) In 1861 he was crowned king of Italy. Before that he was king of Sardinia from 1849 -1861. He also appointed Cavour as his Prime Minister. Victor Emmanuel II
Part of a two house legislature, the upper house, was appointed by the rulers of German states. They had the real power in decision making. Bundesrat
Part of the lower house, elected by universal male suffrage. Group had limited power. Reichstag
means the “Emperor” of Germany. It was the beginning of the Second Reich, or empire. They called it that because they considered it heir to the Holy Roman Empire founded by King Otto. Kaiser
In 1871 German princes gathered in the glittering palace of Versailles in France.It symbolized the end of French Dominance of Europe. They formed German unification and the 2nd Reich began. Hall of Mirrors
In the 1830s a coalition of German state formed to manage customs and economic policies within their territories. It dismantled tariff barriers between many of the German States. Zollverein
1870 Telegram, caused France to declare Franco-Prussian War. Internal message btwn the Prussian King William I and the French ambassador. Bismarck editing made it seem like the William I had insulted the Frenchman. Napoleon III declared war on Prussia. Ems Dispatch
he was Chancellor of Prussia in 1862, diplomat in Russia and France, used a policy of “blood and iron’ to unite the German states under Prussian rule, known as the “Iron Chancellor”, targeted the Catholic Church and socialist b/c a threat to German state. Bismark
Created by: hwzone