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AP World Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Flash cards

Helots conquered people in Sparta
Solon leader who emerged to push Athenian politics in a more democratic direction.
Hellenistic era the period in which Greek culture flourished
Punic wars three major wars between Rome and Carthage
Patricians wealthy, privileged Romans
Caesar Augustus nephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar
Pax Romana Roman peace
Wendi Sui emporor
Wudi Han emperor, civil service exam
Yellow turban rebellion peasant revolt, lead to the fall of the Han
Eunuchs castrated court officials
Xiongu nomadic people north of the great wall of China
Aryans Indo-Euro pastoralists who moved into India
Ashoka ruler of Mauryan empire, converted to Buddhism
Athenian Democracy Radical form of direct democracy, free males ruled
Cyrus founder of the Persian empire
Herodotus Greek historian, "father of history"
hoplite heavily armed Greek infantryman
Ionia territory of Greek settlements on the coast of Anatolia
Mandate of heaven Ideological underpinning of Chinese emperors
Persepolis Capital of the Persian empire
What is an empire, and what does it do? State that exercises coercive power
How was Athenian democracy different? Direct democracy
Direct democracy Everyone votes on everything
What did Greek victory against Persia do for Athenian democracy? Gave poor men full citizenship
What changes did Alexander's conquests make? Spread Greek culture to Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, and India.
What else? Start of the Hellenistic era.
Hellenistic era Greece's golden age
What happened to Alexander's empire when he died? It was split into two parts
How did Rome differ from China? Rule of law, Basic rights to all, System protected lower classes
What was the key to Rome's success? It's army. Well trained, well fed, well something
What eventually happened to Western Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire? Decentralized system with kings, nobles, vassals.
Why were Europeans unable to reconstruct something of the unity of their classical empire while China did? Europe was culturally and linguistically more diverse than China.
The Roman Empire didn't have strong bureaucratic traditions like China did in their many dynasties that came and went The Roman catholic church was often at odds with individual states
Why were centralized empires so much less prominent in India than in China? India began fragmented, it was much more diverse, and it was often invaded by outsiders
Sugar cane Started in New Guinea, crystallized by Indians
Long distance trade routes were another change of the 2nd and 3rd wave civs Indian Ocean, Sahara, East Woodlands of NA
Common classical empire problems Would they try to impose their culture on varied subjects?
Would they rule conquered people directly or through local elites? How should they extract wealth while maintaining order?
What kept the Persian empire together? violent punishments by king, effective administrative system
respect for non-Persian cultural traditions, standardized coinage, predictable taxes encouragement of communication and commerce
What did early Greece have? Tyrants, supported by the poor
What was Sparta? An oligarchy, ran by a council of elders
Alexander When he took Egypt, he was named Pharaoh, created the "library" at Alexandria
Chinese dynasties Shang, Zhou, Warring states, Qin, Han, Sui, Tang, Sung, Yuan, Ming, Qing Republic, Mao Zedong, De
Qin Reunited china, very strict, burned books/ killed scholars, standardized everything
Why do empires fall? They become to big to rule, tax problems, invaders, etc.
What happens when they fall? decline of urban life, pop decline, reduction of trade, insecurity
Indian empires not as big of a deal as other places, started in north India, UBER diverse
What did trade lead to in Mauryan India? Spread of Hinduism, Buddhism, astronomy, and math. Spread by merchants on roads built by Ashoka
Created by: GarrettBaldwin