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Ch.4 Review

Empire States that exercise coercive power
Persian Empire Largest and most impressive empire around 500 BCE located around the Iranian Plateau and north of the Persian Gulf. Built upon the earlier Mesopotamian Civilization
Babylonian and Assyrian Empires Civilizations previous to the Persian Empire that contributed to the Persians imperial system
Cyrus Famous Persian monarch from 557-530 BC. AKA Cyrus the Great
Darius Famous Persian monarch from 522-486 BCE.
Cult of Kingship Elaborate process in the Persian Empire to be followed in relation to the king. Almost religious
Ahura Mazda Great Persian god that allowed kings to reign
Satraps Persian governors
Herodotus Greek historian that commented on the Persian Empires remarkable tolerance of foreign customs
Royal Road Extensive road system strictly within the Persian Empire nearly 1700 miles in length that facilitated trade and communication within the empire
Persepolis Capital of the Persian Empire, reflected wealth and power of the empire
Susa Another Persian city aside from Persepolis that reflected the power and wealth of the empire
The Greeks AKA Hellenes. Compilation of city-states that emerged around 750 BCE on the small Greek peninsula
Athens Greek city-state in which democracy thrived. Home of Socrates
Sparta Greek city-state with a heavily militaristic mindset. Consisted of an oligarchical council of Elders
Zeus Greek god of the sky. Head of all Greek gods
Olympic Games Event in which the Greek city-states suspended rivalries and came together to compete in events every 4 years.
Anatolia Modern-day Turkey, its Aegean and Mediterranean coast became the location of some Greek settlements
"Citizenship" Greek idea that involved free people running the affairs of the state and equality of all citizens before the law.
Hoplites Men, mainly of the middle and lower class, who purchased their own armor and weapons and served as infantry-men in their city-states army. Helped earn broader political rights for lower classes
Tyrants Strong and benevolent rulers that arose from time to time, usually with the support of the poor people to challenge the wealthy
Helots Conquered people who lived in slave-like conditions. Large population in Sparta
Council of Elders Body with the most political authority in Sparta, was composed of 28 men over the age of 60 who mainly came from the wealthier or more influential segment of society
Solon A reforming leader in Athenian politics in 594 BCE pushing in a democratic direction
Pericles 25 A later Greek reformer that built on the rights of citizens gained by Solon. Was a great Greek statesmen during the Golden Age of Greek Civilization
The Assembly The center of Athenian political life in which all citizens could participate
Greco-Persian Wars Conflict that resulted over obstinate Greek settlements resisting Persian rule in Anatolia. Greek city-states banded together and held-off the Persians
Ionia What the Greeks called their settlements on the Anatolian coast
Battle of Marathon Momentous battle of the Greco-Persian Wars in 490 BCE in which the Greeks prevailed and a soldier supposedly ran 26.2 miles to tell a city of the victory and yelled Nike and died.
Golden Age of Greek Culture Was the 50 years or so after the Greco-Persian Wars in which the Parthenon was built, Greek theater was born, and Socrates began his career as a philosopher.
Peloponnesian War Civil war between the Greek city-states essentially consisting of Athens and its allies and Sparta and its allies. Sparta was fighting to preserve traditional Greek independence, while Athens fought to keep its dominant position among the Greeks.
Macedonia Empire that took over the civil-war weakened Greeks
Philip II Father of Alexander the Great. Led Macedonia's takeover of Greece.
Macedonian Takeover Started by Philip II, led to Greek unification, something the Greeks had been unable to achieve on their own.
Alexander the Great Son of Philip II, leader of the new Greek Empire. Led countless expeditions and conquered massive chunks of land
Hellenistic Era 323-330 BCE. Period of widespread dissemination of Greek culture.
Alexandria Egyptian city named after Alexander the Great with a population of half a million people, was a hub for countless cultures that facilitated long-distance commerce, and facilitated Greek learning with a massive library and musuem
Ashoka Indian monarch that published some of his decrees in Greek. Example of Greek culture diffusion
Bactria Independent Greek state established in current-day northern Afghanistan.
Kshatriya Caste Caste group that Greeks were placed into in India
Roman Empire Empire beginning in the impoverished city-state of Rome in Italy. Transformed into an imperial state encompassing the Mediterranean basin and parts of continental Europe
Patricians The wealthy class in Roman society that dominated the Republic
Plebians The poorer class that had conflicts with the patricians which led to changes in Roman politics
Tribune A new public office in Rome that served to represent plebeians and give them a chance to block unfavorable legislation.
Punic Wars Wars in which Rome fought the North African empire of Carthage extending Roman control over the western Mediterranean and making Rome a naval power.
Carthage Empire destroyed by the Romans in the Punic Wars. The Romans razed the city to the ground and either killed the inhabitants or sold them into slavery.
Julius Caesar One of Rome's several military leaders who recruited their troops directly from the poor. Went on to become emperor
Octavian Following the decline of Rome's Republican values, he became the first Emperor. AKA Augustus
pax Romana The Roman Peace. An era of Rome's greatest extent and greatest authority.
Qin Shihuangdi Leader of the state of Qin who launched a military campaign to unify China and succeeded. Began the Qin dynasty and installed legalism.
Created by: 1314Jacob_Taylor