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Human Legacy Ch. 4.4

Rulers of Russia and Central Europe

boyars Russian nobles
czar/czarina ruler of Russia
Ivan IV passed many reforms, expanded territory, and caused terror which led to times of trouble
Peter the Great passed reforms, caused a streltsy rebellion, and built St. Petersburg which led to the beginning of westernization
westernization the process of changing life styles to be more European
Catherine the Great caused a rebellion and reformed the rural government which led to more power for nobles over serfs
Thirty Years' War long war between the Catholics and Protestants; most of Europe became involved until it was ended by the Treaty of Westphalia
Treaty of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years' War; it was a Protestant victory that extended religious toleration
Maria Theresa ruler of Austria and daughter of Charles VI that started the War of the Austrian Succession by refusing an alliance with Fredrick the Great and took part in the Seven Years' War which led to continued competition with the Hohenzollerns
Fredrick the Great ruler of Prussia that took part in the War of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War which led to Prussia becoming a major European power
St. Petersburg warm water port established by Peter the Great
country that became the strongest military power in Europe following the Seven Years' War Prussia