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HIST121 Test 2

Crete -large island -earliest civilization of Greece -Bronze Age civilization -collapse caused by tsunami
Polis -political unit where all major functions are carried out -had city and surrounding countryside
Mycenae -a center in civilization -powerful monarchies based in palace complexes
Persians -tried to overtake the Athenians in Marathon
Homer -Wrote Iilad and Odyssey -passed down from generation to generation -poet
Philip of Macedonia built and efficient army and had strongest power in the Greek world
democracy -started in Athens -power was in hands of male citizens
Peloponnesian wars -between Athens and Sparta -couldn't tolerate each others systems -lasted 27yrs
Thucydides -considered greatest historian of the ancient world -wrote History of the Peloponnesian War
Alexander the Great -asserted his authority, secured Macedonian frontiers and stopped a rebellion in Greece -tried to invade the Persian Empire
Sparta -wanted more land and got it by conquering new areas
Acropolis -building that is used as place of refuge during attack -in center of polis
Spartan kings -Two of them, responsible for military affairs and leaders of army
Hellenistic art -ideal person
Marathon 26 miles from Athens, where Athenians fought Persians
Solon reform minded aristocrat cancelled all land debt, outlawed new loans, freed slaved people
Delean League defensive alliance, defeated Persians
Oracle of Delphi -shrine dedicated to a god or goddess who revealed future -a priestess would listen to questions and got answers from Apollo
Helots -people captured and made to work for Spartans
Seven Hills of Rome protected the empire
Hannibal -greatest of the Carthaginian generals -started second Punic War -planned to defeat Romans in their own backyard
Roads/Aqueducts built mostly by good emperors
Barbarians Those who aren't considered Roman citizens
Gladiators fought till the death as form of entertainment
Etruscans -influenced Rome -responsible for outstanding building program
Twelve tablets First code of laws that was designed for simple farming society
Latin language reached high point during age of Augustus
"Bad" Emperors Julio-Claudian successors acted like real rulers, acted corrupt and would kill for no reason
Diocletian/Constantine extended imperial control by strengthening and expanding, made major political and military reforms
Carthaginians Romans attacked with a naval fleet
Patrician/Plebian -great landowners, consuls, magistrates, and senators -larger group of large land owners, less wealthy landholders, merchants, and small farmers
Marius Roman general that started recruiting landless volunteers that swore an oath of loyalty to their general
"Good" Emperors treated classes with respect, maintained peace, supported beneficial domestic policies, known for tolerance and diplomacy
Christianity started as Romans started expanding they came into contact with Jews
Gracchi Brothers Believed that Romes problems was caused by the decline of small farmers
"latifunda" large estates that used slave labor, butting in the number of small citizen farmers available for military service
The Han founded was formerly a commoner, dynasty moved to consolidate its control over empire
Grand Council head of government, had representatives from all three segments of government
Buddhism brought to China for the first time by the Silk Road
population increased rapidly under Han
Silk Road Merchants from Central Asia used this
Civil service exam local officials had to pass first
Mesoamerica The region where one of the first civilizations in the western hemisphere began to appear
Olmecs had rubber that was desired by other regions, one of the first signs of civilization
Teotihuacan first metropolis in Mesoamerica
Decline of Maya overcultivaton of the land due to growing population and drought
Aztecs controlled much of modern day Mexico
Inca had many roadways and developed new irrigation system
Created by: mpadner732