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AFRI 113

Exam 1

3 reasons Africa was excluded from the academic community 1. Narrow European definition of history (only written records) 2. Influence of missionaries that dispised African culture. 3. Overall inability of Africans during the slave trade & Colonialism
To Europe Africa was considered... An extension of Europe
3 conditions western anthropologist had to meet to be accepted to study in Africa * Must master the language of the society they study. * should be ready and committed to let African scholars do the basic research. * They must be willing to engage in open dialogue with their African counterparts
2 distinct models of Sociology Equilibrium & Conflict
Conflict Model Sees only conflict going on in societies (competition)
Equilibrium Sees blacks as deviant or different
Academically Political science... Was forbidden to be taught in African schools for many years
Dependency theory (created by sociologist and political scientist) * focuses on factors outside of Africa which makes them depend on other people to make things better. *Political people were criticized
Academically geography... Was the least controversial study...
Academically Linguistics... Was the least conspicuous study
The primary focus of African American Studies is on the... experiences, the problems, and the prospects of people who's heritage wherever they may be is African.
African American Departments in universities 60, funded directly from universities. Not based on enrollment; offer a major/minor in the study
African American Programs in universities based on enrollment, funded by soft money, do not offer a major and a minor
Carter G. Woodson Founded: Woodson Association, The Journal of Negro History, The Negro history bulletin, "Negro History Week", became the voice of authority
3 types of Afrocentrist Continental Afrocentrist, Social Afrocentrist, Afrocentric Infusionist
Continental Afrocentrist... See Africa as the true source of black culture
Social Afrocentrist... Stress the use of knowledge and resources to protect and promote the best interest of black people
Afrocentric Infusionist Stress African based ideas and concepts into the curriculum
2 major dimensions that had a consequence on human development.. Soils (Lacked hummus, high in iron content, poor quality w/ a moisture stressed condition), Diseases
Homohabilus First species to use tools to be more efficient.
What were 3 objectives of the portugese? 1. to find a way to reach west africas gold mines. 2. to break islamic & Arab control of the trade routes. 3. To spread Christianity.
Portugese were also called Lancados
2 Things that Walter Rodney blames the "success" of slave trade on. 1. Ethnic Rivalries 2. European activities which exploited Africans to suit slave traders interest.
How were slaves organized before being traded? Slaves were generally branded with a hot iron by either the owner or company which was trading them.
5 advantages for enslaving africans were... (1-3) 1. Runaways could be easily recognized. 2. Blacks were considered heathens so they could be punished harshley. 3. The allegation that africans were inferior in intellegence but superior in strength.
5 advantages for enslaving africans were... (4 & 5) 4. Blacks were immune to tropical diseases & bad weather. 5. The supply of african laborers seemed in-exhaustable.
2 reasons why slavery functioned 1. To maintain an un-free labor arrangement. 2. To regulate race and class relations
5 significant events leading to the start of the civil war. 1. passage of fugitive slave law 1850 2. passage of the kansas nebraska act (repealed the miss. compromise) 3. Dred Scott decision 4. John brown's raid on harpers ferry viginia 5. the election of lincoln
3 conclusions made following the age of exploration. 1. Accounts made by explorers were derogetory to Africans. 2. Info about the continents resources could help europs industrial revolution. 3. Explorers noted that slavery in some form continued in west & central Africa.
1884-1885 || what major event happened that influenced Africa? Conference of berlin, Africans were not represented. conference divided Africa into several colonies
Views held of africans by the colonial powers French & portugese - Assimilation to qualify the Africans to be french or portugese citizens Belgians- Children had to be taught & told everything "paternalism" Germans- Believed African's only purpose was to produce crops & build roads & railroads
Views held of africans by the colonial powers (only brittish) Viewed africans as subjects and not citizens. Africa could not be represented in parliment.
Rutherford B. Hayes pledged to do 2 things... 1. Fully withdraw federal troops from the south 2. To adopt a "hands-off" approach in the south. *reconstruction would happen on the South's terms*
Booker T. Washington 1. Supported vocational education 2. Born a slave 3. product of Hampton Institute 4. founded tusceegy 5. leading black man of his time in america.
W.e.b. Debois * Washington's number 1 critic * Graduated from Fisk * First black man to get a phd from harvard * 1905 started the Niagra movement *1909 co-founder of the NAACP
IDA B. Wells * Rust University * Crusader against lynching * involved with the NAACP TRYING TO COMBAT THE THOUGHTS THAT: * All black women were promiscuous * All black men are rapist of white women.
Marcus Garvey * Kingston Jamaica * printer by trade * black purist/ back to africa movement * Universal Negro Improvement Association * tried to get blacks to establish and support their own businesses
The Afro Caribean experience was the result of 3 things 1. European searches for new trade routes 2. New areas of investment 3. new lands to conquer
East Indians & Chinese... became indentured servants to harvest crops
5 worker demands from Afro-Carribean workers Higher wages, Better working conditions, constitiutional reform, Universal Sufferage, Electoral reform
2 African countries that did not fall directly to colonialism East- Ethiopia West- Liberia
One principle characteristic of Africa is It has an underdeveloped economy
2 phases in the struggle against external control of underdevoloped economy 1. Nationalist Struggle 2. Gaining Independence
4 ways emmigration relates to Pan-Africanism (1-2) 1. Black controlled efforts never made claims on land inside or outside of Africal that required kicking out the people that lived there. 2. The majority of followers were the poorer segments of the African world population
4 ways emmigration relates to Pan-Africanism (3-4) 3. The number of desendants who actually returned was not very large 4. These movements showed strong resistance to the combination of black suffering
Garvey "From garvey came Garveyism", 20-30's garveyism had about 6 million followers.
Kwame Nkrumah Leader of Ghana's independence movement
The Major political problem of every independent African state was the idea of... Forging National Unity
2 causes to the overall problem of forging national unity 1. Colonial Boundries 2. Ethnic loyalty over national loyalty (ex. Hoosier over an American)
Main approach to poverty in Africa Africans were analyzed from a financial standpoint. *$1 a day determined whether someone was living in poverty
4 reasons for economic stagntaion The colonial legacy, The adverse geographical environment, The international economic system, The policies of some African governments
3 favors offered to Africa by both sides of the cold war 1. Economic Aid 2. Educational Assistance 3. Support for total decolonization
3 approaches to solving the dilema of economic powerlessness (1-2) 1. Keeping trade relationships how they were with minor changes (4-5 countries supported) 2. De-linkage- Only africans should determine the nautre of trade relationships (radical leaders & scholars)
3 Approaches to solving the dilema of economic powerlessness (3) Re-evaluating the historically distorted trade system by seeking dialogue between africa & western industrialized nations (Most african states & scholars)
Working or middle class... 2/3 of black america
Underclass... 1/3 of black america
Most controversial social problems that exist is... Education
STILL the most serious social problem is... Housing
The Afro Carribean population in the US is very LARGE
Created by: cammccarty