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ST110 A&P CH. 8

Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
What are neurotransmitters? Chemicals that is stored in the synaptic vesicles of the axon of a motor neuron that are involved in the process of contraction.
What are dendrites? An extension of a neuron that receives information; neurons may have one or more dendrites.
What is the autonomic nervous system? Subdivision of the PNS; connects the CNS to the visceral organs via the cranial and spinal nerves to initiate involuntary responses.
What carries impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons? Interneuron; also known as associative neurons
Define the term afferent. Emerge from the sensory organs of the body (such as skin) and transmit impulses back toward the brain and spinal cord; also known as sensory neurons
Define the term synapse. The area between the terminal branches of an axon and the ends of a branched dendrite
What is the medical term inflammation of a nerve? Neuritis
What carries impulses away from the brain or spinal cord to the muscles and glands of the body and is also known as motor neurons? Efferent
What is an axon? The extension of a neuron that transmits impulses away from the cell; a neuron has only one axon
What is the somatic nervous system? Responsible for connecting the CNS to the skin and skeletal muscles via the cranial and spinal nerves to initiate involuntary movements
What is the second largest structure of the brain and where is it located? Cerebellum
What forms at the inferior portion of the brainstem, begins at the foramen magnum and ends at the inferior border of the pons? Medulla oblongata
What is composed of gray matter nuclei and located between the midbrain and cerebrum? Diencephalon
What is the cerebral cortex? A layer of neurons on the surface of the brain that is approximately 2-4mm thick
What is the largest portion of the brain and is divided into a right and left hemisphere and also is covered with gyri that is separated by sulci and fissues? Cerebrum
Define the term thalamus. One of the primary structures of the diencephalon; acts as arelay station to the cerebral cortex for all sensory data from the cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, and other parts of the cerebrum
What is cerebrospinal fluid? Flows through the intraventricular canal to the third ventricle; is a reabsorbed by fingerlike projections of the anachniod that project into the dural sinuses
Three thin layers of protective tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord are known as what? Meninges
What connects the diencephalon to the spinal cord and consists of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain Brain stem
Define the term ventricle. One of four cavities in the brain that produce and contain CSF
Define olfactory nerve and cranial nerve what? Sensory nerve that carries smell impulses from receptors in the nasal mucosa to the brain; First (I)
Define oculomotor nerve and cranial nerve what? Mixed nerve that is responsible for movement of the eyeball, eyelid, pupil construction, and proprioception; Third (III)
Define optic nerve and cranial nerve what? Sensory nerve that carries visual impulses from the eye to the brain; Second (II)
Define trochlear nerve and cranial nerve what? Mixed nerve that is responsible for movement of the superior oblique muscle of the eyeball and proprioception; Fourth (VI)
Define trigeminal nerve and cranial nerve what? Mixed nerve that consist of three divisions (ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular); Fifth (V)
Define abducens nerve and cranial nerve what? Mixed nerve that is responsible for movement of the lateral rectus muscle of the eyeball and proprioception; Sixth (VI)
Define facial nerve and cranial nerve what? Mixed nerve that is responsible for proprioception, taste, fascial expression, and tear and saliva production; Seventh (VII)
Define vestibulocochlear nerve and cranial nerve what? Sensory nerve responsible for hearing and balance and also known as auditory or acoustic nerve; Eighth (VIII)
Define glossopharyngeal nerve and cranial nerve what? Mixed nerve that functions in blood pressure regulation, taste, proprioception, and saliva production; Ninth (IX)
Define vagus nerve and cranial nerve what? Mixed nerve responsible for visceral sensation, proprioception smooth muscle contraction/relaxation, and production of digestive fluids and also the longest cranial nerve; Tenth(X)
Define (spinal) accessory nerve and cranial nerve what? Mixed nerve that functions in the proprioception, swallowing, and movement of the head and neck; Eleventh (XI)
Define hypoglossal nerve and cranial nerve what? Mixed nerve responsible for movement of the tongue and proprioception
Created by: casenichole