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Advanced Patho EXAM 2

Erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets are known as what? blood cells
Blood cells are responsible for what? transportation of oxygen to tissues removal of CO2 from tissues buffering blood pH
The formation of blood cells is known as what? hematopoiesis
What does the Oxygen Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve (OHDC) describe? the relationship between PO2 and SO2: Changes in O2 affinity are represented by shifts in the O2-Hgb dissociation curve
What does a shift to the right mean in the OHDC? enhances O2 release to cell;, provides increase in O2 delivery needed during exercise or stress/chronic disease
What does a shift to the left mean in the OHDC? increase in O2 affinity so O2 not released as easy
Anemia, high altitude, hyperthyroidism is seen in a left or right shift (OHDC)? Right shift
What is hemoglobin (hgb)? O2 carrying protein; main functional constituent of red cell protein that enables it to carry 100X’s more O2 in plasma
What is hematocrit (hct)? RBC’s or erythrocytes
What does a high Hct level mean? dehydration
What lab test measures the size of the RBCs? Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
What does a high RDW mean? The higher RDW, the more number of different RBC’s present
What does a RDW measure? RBC distribution width/sizes
What is the name of the major iron storage protein? ferritin
A ferritin level of <10 indicates what? Iron deficiency anemia (IDA)
What lab test evaluates how iron therapy is working? Reticulocyte count
What is a reticulocyte? a baby RBC; matures into a RBC within 24-48 hours
What does TIBC (total iron binding capacity) measure? indirect measure of transferrin
What is the name of the plasma protein that carries iron from the blood to the liver? transferring
True or false: 150,000-400,000 platelets/mm3 is the normal range true
A low platelet count may cause what? spontaneous bleeding
If clots are present, would you expect the platelet level to be low or high? high
S/S of anemia tachycardia, intermittent claudication, pallor, transient murmurs, light headedness
What is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world? Iron deficient anemia
What is the most common cause of anemia? Iron deficient anemia
If you see a MCV less than 80, what would you suspect? Iron deficient anemia or thalassemia
True or false, you should take iron supplements if diagnosed with Thalassemia. False, avoid iron supplements
If you see a MCV greater than 80, what would you expect? folate or B12 deficiency
What would you prescribe to a patient with a folate deficiency? prescription strength folate; OTC prenatal or folate isn't sufficient
How is vitamin B12 absorbed? Intrinsic factors found in gastric juices
Fanconi anemia is what kind of anemia? aplastic anemia
What does aplastic anemia cause? a reduction of hematopoietic in bone marrow
What stimulates bone marrow conversion from yellow to red? erythropoietin
What is epogen? The man made form of erythropoietin
What makes the RBC the best carrier of hemoglobin and oxygen the concave disk formation with large surface area and ability to deform
What disease causes an overgrowth of RBC, WBC and platelets? Polycythemia vera
What is treatment in polycythemia vera? 450-500mL of blood removed every week
True or false, people with polycythemia vera can donate their blood. False, they cannot donate the blood that is removed weekly
What is the most common metabolic disease of RBC? G6PDH
What role does the spleen play in G6PDH? notices the abnormal RBCs and tries to attack them
What is G6PDH? glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; affects the RBC metabolic process
True of false, Heinz bodies are not found in G6PDH? false, Hgb is denatured,so Heinz bodies are present
What happens in Sickle Cell Anemia? genetically determined defect of Hgb synthesis; autosomal recessive disorder.
Why can clots occur in Sickle Cell Anemia? because the RBC don't conform
What race is predominantly affected by Sickle Cell Anemia? African Americans
If abnormal red cell skeleton, altered membranes and metabolism are present, what would you suspect? hereditary spherocytosis
What type of genetic disorder is G6PDH? x linked recessive
What is the treatment of choice in hereditary spherocytosis? spleenectomy and folate therapy
What does -penia imply? a suffix, deficiency of or low levels; EX: neutropenia-decreased neutrophils
What occurs in Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn? maternal ABO incompatibility
What lab results would you expect to find with hereditary spherocytosis? Hbg w/i red cells increased, serum unconjugated bili increased
True or false, Rhogam is given to the mom in the event of Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn. True
List the 5 stages of hemostasis. 1. vessel spasm 2. formation of platelet plug 3. blood coag or development of fibrin clot 4. clot retraction 5. clot dissolution
Created by: lbl317537