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Advanced Patho EXAM 2

Define cancer a disorder of cell proliferation and differentiation
True or false, the most common cancer is skin. True
What is the leading cancer in both men and women? lung cancer
Describe benign cancer slow growth rate, don't metastasize, well-differentiated (resemble tissue of origin), rarely grow back
Describe malignant cancer rapid growth, frequent metastasize, poor prognosis, common reoccurrence
Lack of differentiation is called ______ anaplasia
What does normal tissue renewal and repair involve? proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis
Why are proto-oncogenes good? they control cell growth and replication
Why are onocogenes bad? capable of converting normal cells into cancer cells
What is RAS? Ras is a family of genes that are involved in cellular signal transduction
What is the most common tumor suppressor gene? TP53
Why is the TP53 gene important when dealing with CA? if defective, damaged/unstable cells are allowed to survive and replicate
What kind of gene is the retinoblastoma gene? (Rb) tumor suppresor gene
Why is the Rb gene important when dealing with CA? if defective, it may accelerate the cell cycle.
How is bone marrow affected in leukemia? characterized by an overproduction of blasts in the bone marrow
What are the s/s of leukemia? Fever, wt loss, night sweats, itching , fatigue, bone pain, abdominal fullness, bleeding episodes, bruising, petechiae, frequent infections, HA, N/V, enlarged spleen, liver, and lymph nodes, hyperplasia of gums
What are the lab findings of leukemia? Anemia thrombocytopenia leucopenia blasts on peripheral blood smear increased uric acid hypercalcemia
Leukemia is classified according to predominant cell type, what are they (2)? lymphocytic and myelocytic
What does ALL stand for and who does it predominantly affect? acute lymphocytic leukemia; affects children
True of False, AML and CML affects children? false, it primarily affects adults
How are lymphocytic leukemias diagnosed? bone marrow biopsy and blood studies
Describe Hodgkins lymphoma? often localized contiguous spread B symptoms common
Which is harder to treat, Hodgkins or non-hodgkins and why? Non-hodgkins because it has a non-contiguous spread, involves bone marrow and is rarely localized
Malignancy of mature ATB secreting B lymphocytes is known as what? multiple myeloma
Multiple myeloma affects men or women more frequently? men
Risk factors for cancer. tobacco, certain nutritional contributors, air pollution, occupational exposures, and UV
What does non-hodgkin's disease affect? B cell, T cell, and NK cell lymphoma.
Why is there hypercalcemia in Multiple Myeloma? Bone destruction releases Ca+ into the bloodstream
How do Tumor Suppressor Genes influence CA production? fluctuations are varied, but all appear to inhibit proliferation or induce apoptosis in defective cells.
What is a diagnostic feature of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)? unique chromosome abnormality; Philadelphia chromosome- translocation between 9 & 22
What, in regards to nutrition, is a CA risk factor? high fat, fiber, ETOH, food additives, antioxidants (not sure whether harm or help)
What is paraneoplastic syndrome? complexes that cannot be explained by obvious tumor properties, many assoc w/ excess production of hormones or cytokines by the tumor
What are some examples of paraneoplastic syndrome? cushing syndrome, SIADH, hypercalcemia
What three retroviruses can lead to cancer? HIV, EBV, and HPV
What cancer does HIV cause? karposi sarcoma
What virus causes Burkett's lymphoma and B Cell Lymphomas? Epstein barr virus (EBV)
What happens in PEM-protein energy malnutrition? There is not enough protein intake so energy is taken from carbs
Disorder of bone marrow stem cells that result in reduction of RBCs, WBCs and platelets is called what? aplastic anemia
Benign cancers are typically non-threatening unless? They are growing in inoperable/dangerous location
Created by: lbl317537