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Church History Final

Chruch History Final Study notes

QuestionAnswer
Identify the date, primary location(s), and emperor/governor for the major imperial persecutions of Christians from AD 60 – 400 Nero 54-68 Rome, Domitian 81-96 Empire wide. Who would not sacrifices, Trajan 98-117 Limited to accused, Decius 249-251 Empire wide Certificate
Tertullian’s famous quote “The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church.”
List the major ideas of Gnosticism Deeper wisdom, Secret knowledge, Duality, Levels, Born Fated
Who was Montanus and what did his movement believe? Asia Minor, kingdom was coming to asia minor, revelation from the Holy Spirit overrode the authority of the Bible.
List five heretics and heresies before AD 400 explaining their theology in one or two sentences. Gnostic, Montatists The highest authority is Holy Spirit, Arianism The Son and the Father are not one, Docetism, Believed that Christ was not really human at all.
What was the Donatist controversy? During a persecution some people had turned over Bibles and other sacred texts to avoid being arrested, tortured or killed.
List the dates and names of the four major ecumenical councils before the sixth century together with the essential doctrines or anathemas determined Nicea A.D. 325 Arianism, Constntinople A.D. 381Christ had two natures, Ephesus A.D. 449 Condemnation of Nestorius, Calcedon A.D. 451 Christ perfect man and perfect God,
Explain briefly how Augustine changed the doctrine of Western Christianity but did not affect Eastern Christianity. arguments not effect in East, Eastern Church not hold philosophy and logic in same regard. inability to read Greek hurt his credibility in East. was never a saint in the Orthodox Church.
What were the major liturgical elements of the church in the second century and from what sources do we know this? We know it from Justin Martyr’s Apology, Reading of Scripture, Baptism and Communion.
Briefly explain the rise of the Roman papacy and identify the person(s) primarily responsible for strengthening the Roman bishop’s claim to supremacy. Slowly, eastern cities never recognized Rome, Pope Victor insisted all churches Easter date that Rome , Steven of Rome used the statement “On this rock” to support Roman authority, Pope Damasus authority at Nicaea rested on approval of Rome.
What were the Scriptures for the earliest church during apostolic times and what criteria were used to include writings into what would become the Christian Bible? Pentateuch, Historical Books and the Prophets, Written by an Apostle or someone under and Apostle, Had to have been quoted by Early Church fathers.
What famous battle did Charles Martel lead and who was his famous grandson? The Battle of Tours (defeating the Muslims) The Emperor Charlemagne.
Give four major tenets of the Benedictine Rule. Obedience, Peace, Humility, Physical Labor.
Gregory the Great continued traditional Christian soteriology by rejecting Augustine’s views on predestination and irresistible grace. However, he added what three elements that were contrary to Scripture? Penance, Confession, Priestly absolution, Purgatory by offering masses in their favor.
What element of the Muslim expansion in the seventh and eight centuries is not cited today sine it is politically incorrect? Mohamed 90 raids killing women and Children force conversions.
Compare the Christological views of Apollinaris and Nestorius. Apollinaris “Christ took the place of a rational soul, His rational soul was not human but divine, Nestorius “two natures and two persons” One divine and one human.
The Seventh Ecumenical Council of Nicea in 687 distinguished between what two words (define them) to resolve the iconoclast controversy? Latria, Worship which is due only to God. Dulia, Worshipful veneration which is to be given to images.
When did he become emperor and what good things did Charlemagne do? Became Emperor in A.D. 800 (Crowned by the Pope), Education reform, Added more Church Music, Economic reforms, standardized writing.
From AD 800-1500 the papacy was discredited by what problems? List five major areas Simony, Indulgences, Nepotism, Materialism, Total moral decay (keeping concubines, having children in secret)
Why did the crusades occur and what did they accomplish? Power hungry egos of the popes. Fears of further Muslim expansion, short term increase in trade. Nothing of lasting value, pain and suffering and a great blow to Christian standing among non-Christians for the last thousand years.
Name two famous mendicant orders and explain how they differed. Franciscans, Featured practical service, Ministered to those people near their monasteries Were not allowed to own property. Dominicans, High levels of Scholarship (Aquinas), Emphasized study, Were allowed to own property.
What was the Thirty Years War and why is it important? A war between Catholics and Protestants, In Germany, Bohemia lost 80% of its population, Ended in 1648, Peace of Westphalia, All of Europe involved.
Who were William Laud and Oliver Cromwell, and what did they each represent? Laud archbishop of Canterbury, against the Puritans and his measures against harsh and cruel. Cromwell member of the House of Commons, Puritan, raised up a cavalry to fight that of the king. he became “ Lord Protector” and ruled England until his death.
What was Jansenism and what was it outcome? Based on Augustine, Proclaimed that free will apart from Grace could lead only to sin, Stated that God’s grace did not require active Human cooperation to succeed, Condemned as Heresy in Papal bull Unigenitus Pope Clement XI 1713.
Remonstrates Humans can do nothing good, God is necessary to do good, God knew who would be saved, not told by what means He knew. God died for all mankind, Grace not irresistible, Bible is not clear if we can fall from Grace.
Synod of Dort Total Depravity, no man is very from sin. Election is based on inscrutable will of God. Atonement is limited to the elect. Grace is irresistible. The elect will persevere, grace will not fail.
What was John Locke’s contribution to Rationalism? Published Essay on Human Understanding in 1609. All Knowledge is derived from Experience. Reason and judgment are used to measure the degree of probability.
Explain why the theology of the Pietists was wrong while their goal was godliness. Based on personal experience not Scripture. Christians could live virtually sinless. God sanctifies, opposed scholarly examination of Scripture.
What was the Great Awakening” and who were the major persons involved? A Pietistic movement begun in 1734, in North America. Jonathan Edwards Calvinist preacher trained at Yale. George Whitefield Anglican, emotive preacher with strong communication skills.
List the five factors that contributed to the transition from religion to reason during the Enlightenment. Wars of religion, Europe was religiously divided, New philosophical attitudes 100 years of scientific advancements, States brought the Church under government control.
How do Calvinists, Arminians, Wesleyans, modern Lutherans, and others violate Luther’s Reformation cry of sola fidei? They consider works to be an inevitable result of salvation. The primary means by which they arrive at this conclusion is by confusing salvation and sanctification.
Give two reasons that Baptists and Methodists increased their membership more rapidly than other denominations. They did not require the ordination of their pastors, , Their ideas of democratic rule were more compatible with the mindset of individualism found in the times.
How did the churches in America respond to slavery? The Quakers expelled anyone that held slaves. Many denominations were split over the slavery issue.
What were the five fundamentals of evangelical Christianity in the 19th century? Inerrancy of Scripture, Divinity of Jesus, Virgin Birth, Jesus Death on the Cross as a substitute for our sin, Jesus’ physical resurrection and impending return.
Compare Christian Science to Gnosticism. View of a dualist reality, good opposed to evil. Secret knowledge, levels, you progress though both based on how special you are. All physical matter is evil and all spirit is good.
Why is France so anti-Christian today? The French revolution was heavenly dominated by anti-religion sentiment. The Enlightenment active in France, this led to the educated and educators being anti-God. The Thirty Years war, and Both World Wars, had a devastating effect on France as a nation.
Why was Protestantism received so easily in Catholic Latin America in the late nineteenth century? The Popes during this time period did not name any Bishops for these new countries. Sacraments could not be given.
How did Schleiermacher try to save Christianity? Divides Reason and Faith.
What was Kierkegaard’s contribution and what was his error? That we are not just Christian because we are born into a Christian country—family –society. He felt that to be a Christian one must become aware of the cost of faith and pay the price. He confused salvation with sanctification.
What was the Boxer rebellion and why did it happen? In 1900 the Chinese had become fed up with the tens of thousands of insensitive Christian missionaries in China, Thousands of Missionaries and their converts were killed.
What was the Zionist movement in Africa? a syncretism of African primal religions and Christianity featuring exorcisms, ecstatic dance, and purification rites, Pentecostal in nature.
Teilhard de Chardin Why Chatholics believe in Evolution, big on paleontology, found some skull.
Henri Delubac wrote on Church History and early Church Fathers.
Karl Rahner Broughth conservative Chatholicism into the modern age, used Heidegger and Aquinas, showed how people in the priesthood need to adapt to changes in the culture.
Barmen Declaration During World War II, Confessing church differed from the Professing Church. Confessing Church Speaks out.
Primary events in 20th century that lead to increase in Christianity Rise and spread of Pentecostalism, Second Vatican council, emergence of women into visible roles in church, massive new Bible translations and distributions, Survival of Christianity under communist regimes.
Created by: Skylergrey
 

 



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