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islam to the max

Stack #136583

10th of Muharram The most religious holiday for the shi'a. the reenactment of battle where ali died.
Abbasid a shi'a/non arabic muslim caliphte --> house of wisdom, architecture. caliphate following umayyad. capital: baghdad. Crusades. moved the capital to Baghdad. lasted until 1258 when the Mongols attacked
Abu Bakr muhammad's trusted advisor. caliph after him. supported by sunni
Ali muhammad's adopted son/nephew. caliph after uthman. supported by shi'a
Allah muslim god --> only god. was most popular god in polytheistic times.
Allied Powers The Alied Powers in World War I were led by France, Russia, the British Empire and later Italy and the United States and they defeated the Central Powers.
Almohads control based in Morocco after almoravid. idb Tumart believed he was living in the footsteps of muhammad [his attention to the Qur'an and the sunnah] his successors founded a calipahte based on his beliefs --> almohad conquest [of spain]
Almoravids control of spain --> Almoravid control based in Morocco from 1086-1145 CE. The Almoravid Caliphate was founded by Abdullah idn Yasin. (Islamic Spain)
Arabesque the repetition of abstract geometri shape or plantlike forms --> generally on walls
Ashkenazim/Separdim Ashkenazim is an europeanized jew and a sephardim is a jew from a traditionally muslim area.
Balfour Declaration Britain will support a jewish homeland in palestine as long as they dont endanger rights of arabs.
Caliph/Caliphate political islamic ruler. the time in which they/their successors rule successor to the prophet. the four people who succeeded the prophet. sunnis believe that all four are models for the ideal Muslim
Camp David Accords egypt/isreali peace agreement --> egypt accepts israels independence
Central Powers (blank)
Christendom Kingdom of Christ
Damascus city in Syria. capital of the islam world developed in umayyad caliphate
Death Camps anti-semenism to the max. hitler vs. jews. kills millions
Diwan At the top of the bureaucracy was the diwan which seved as a cabinet to the Sultan for making decisions.
Exodus Jews from Egypt. --> LOOK UP AGAAAINNKJHJKHJKH
Fatimad (blank)
Fiqh an Islamic philopshy of jurisprudence. --> to develope ideas about how a judge should react in a case.
First Crusade christians take jerusalem. they kill everyone -->men, women, children [cut open pregnant women and kill babies]. it is vile and cruel, very bloody
Golden Horde a khanate that consists of russia and eastern europe
Hadith a book of personal interactions with muhammad.
Hajj pilgrimage to mecca
HAMAS Pro palestine independence organization and extremist group.
Hijra first year of the islamic calendar. begins when umma is crearted. migration mecca --> medina (622 ce) migration of Muslims from Mecca to Medina (then Yathrib) in 622 AD. beginning of Muslim calendar.
House of Wisdom (blank)Al-Mamun established a university in Baghdad during the Abbasid caliphate called the House of Wisdom to spread Mu'tazilite teaching. It made technological advances that caught them up to or further than European developemnent. still use ideas today
Hussein-McMahon letters between british guy and leader of mecca saying that they would support an arab=led caliphate --> thought htye would have power of most of israel and all of jerusalem
Idols A statue to represent a God.
Ijtihad using reason to make rational legal judgement --> mujtahid: scholars
Imam/Imamate Imam is an Arabic word that means a spiritual community leader.
Intifada Intifada means uprising and the First Intifada was fighting between Israelis and Palestinians in the Gaza Strip in 1987-1993. The Second Intifada happened in 2000 when Ariel Sharon, the new leader of Israel made a trip to the Temple Mount with his army.
Iqta An iqta was a grant of the right to collect taxes on a certain area of land. Persian and Central Asian rules used the igta system.
Islam submission to god
Israeli Defense Force (blank)
Janissaries Janissaries are the military arm of the government. It's the sultan's personal army.
Jihad to struggle for the glory of islam. no necessarily violent. a holy war waged on behalf of Islam as a religious duty; or a personal struggle in devotion to Islam especially involving spiritual discipline
Kach A jewish fundamentalist political party. --> pro israel
Ka’aba where the idols were kept --> shrine to allah. holiest site for islam. the shrine in the center of Mecca. before Muhammad took it over and made it an Islamic shrine, it was pagan.
Khanates Khanates: the four sections of the mongol government - Ilkhan: iran and Iraq - chagada: tibet, pakistan, afganistan - empire of the great khan: china - golden horde: russia, eastern europe
Kharajites A group called Kharajites, eaming seceders and they refused to recognixe the validity of Muawiyya's claim to the caliphate (rashidun).
Khums It's an Islamic tax that is 1/5 of tax.
Madrasa a religious school.
Mamluks The Abbasid caliphate began importing Turks as slave-warriors called Mamuks early in the ninth century.
Mawali Mawali were non-Arabs who converted to Islam and they were essentially adopted into a Muslim tribe.
Mecca arabian town. where muhammad was born. most important location for Islam --> ka'aba is here. muslims moved to medina because of religious
Medina Medina is the place where Muhammad and his flollowers slowly established themselves. There they bult the first mosque, a simple building containing a stone to mark the qiblah. They went to Medina to escape persecution.
Mi’raj Mi'raj is the ascent to heaven.
Muslim one who submits --> a follower of islam
Ottoman Empire 1299-1922 CE which led to the Republic of Turkey.
PLO Palestine Liberation Organization
Pope Urban II started the crusades. you will go to heaven if you 'kill the infidels'
Qiblah The first mosque in Medina contains a stone to mark the qiblah. The qiblah is the direction of prayers towards Mecca
Qur’an Allahs words shared by muhammad
Quraysh Tribe that controlled Mecca when Muhammad was a kid, his uncle (Abu Talib) was head of the Quraysh clan when he adopted Muhammad
Ramadan ninth month of the islamic calendar, month when qur'an began to be revealed. the ninth month of the Islamic year observed as sacred with fasting practiced daily from dawn to sunset
Rashidun rightly guided caliph
Reconquista Reconquering of Muslim Spain by Christians
Resolution 181 On November 29, 1947 the UN General Assembly voted in favor of the partition of Palestine.
Resolution 194 Resolution 194 (1948) gave Palestinians refugees the right to cross the border and reclaim thier homes, or accept compensation for them.
Resolution 242 after 6 War Israel controls Gaza, Sinai Peninsula, Golan Heights, and West Bank. --> Israel must leave newly gained land - every state has the right to independent existence - all regional citizens had the right to live in peaec within national boundaries
Right of Return During the Israeli War of Independence many Arabs left their homes out of fear. they were evicted by Israelis or were suggested to do so by Arab leaders, so the "right of return" is still debated and has to do with the right to return to someone's homelan
Safavid (blank)
Sahm a pillar of faith. --> fasting during ramadan
Saladin Saladin was a brilliant soldier and master strategist. leader of fatimids [2nd and 2rd crusades]. he was Kurdish [not arab]. Saladin became the most-powerful man west of Baghdad.
Salat a pillar of faith --> pray five times a day
Sawm a pillar of faith - fasting
Second Crusade ends in tie - christians want control/land/power while muslims just fight back.
Shah Name for ruler of Ottoman Empire
Shahada a pillar of faith. --> claiming belief
Shari’a islamic law based on qur'an
Shaykh Shaykh is a Sufi teacher.
Shi’a Islam a sect of islam that believes that Ali was the right caliph guy thing after muhammad. was his nephew/adopted son
Sufi a relgious leader - more mystical than ulama --> more personal relationship with god
Suleyman I (blank)
Sultan Muslim rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms, without claiming the overall Caliphate
Sunnah/Sunni Sunni is an islamic sect that believes that all four caliphs were the rashidun. the sunnah is a sunni text that states muhammads actions and words.
Surah a chapter of the qur'an
Sykes-Picot Agreement france and britain's paln to divide ottoman land
Tawhid The second major idea that is central to Islam is tawhid which means to accept the oneness of God.
Third Crusade Saladin takes jerusalem. it is now muslim but others can go to it.
Treaty of Sevres A treaty dividing up the Ottoman Empire after World War I and the Sykes-Picot Agreement turned into the Treaty of Sevres.
Ulama Ulama are scholars who generally worked as teachers, judges and varios sorts of bureaucrats. [shi'a: collects taxes (khan)] scholars who interpret the Koran and Sunnah
Umayyad the first Islamic dynasty; rule passed down within the family. They moved the capital from Medina to Damascus --> sunni
Umma community of believers
Wahabbi’ism Wahabbi'ism is a movement developed on the Arabian Peninsula to purify the umma.
War of Israeli Independence After David Ben-Gurion proclaimed Israeli independence in 1948 the Israeli War of Independence began because Arab armies attacked the next day and the war continued until mid-June.
World War I World War 1 began in 1914 and ended in 1918. It was a war between the Allied and Central Powers. World War I was a global military conflict that left millions dead and reshaped much of the modern world. It is known as the "Great War."
Young Turks Liberal nationalists in Turkey who wish to adopt western ideas in 1920's. There were revolts against Ottoman goverment to modernize Turkey.
Zakat a pillar of faith --> charity
Zionism movement to create jewish homeland in palestine
Created by: jadyn



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