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Stearns- chapter 3

Ancient India

QuestionAnswer
Untouchables The lowest class of the Indian caste system
Ramayana A sanskrit epic that concerns the banishment of Rama from his kingdom and his restoration to the throne
Arthashastra A treatise Chandragupta Maurya wrote to show how he would govern his people
Gurus Teachers and guides in religious and philosophical matter
Dharma A virtuous law including the natural and moral principles that apply to all beings and things
Upanishads A religious book that explained the unknown
Mandala any ritualistic designs to symbolizethe universe; used as and aid to meditation
Reincarnation The successive attachment of the soul to some animate form according to merits earned in previous lives
Nirvana the buddhist state of enlightenment, a state of tranquility
Guptas A dynasty that built the emipire that extende to to all but the southern regions of the Indian subcontinent
Sanskrit the sacred and classical Indian languege
Skandra Gupta Last of thew able rulers of the Gupta dynasty
Buddha Sydhartha Gutama,the founder of one of the most famous Indian religions,Buddhism
Chandragupta Maurya Founder of Maurya dynasty; establiahed first empire in Indian subcontinent
Ashoka Completed conquest of Indian subcontinent, switched to buddhism and spread the religion throughout the country
Kamasutra A book written by Vatsayana during the Gupta Age. It offered instructions on all aspects of life for higher caste males including hygiene, etiquette, and selection of wives (and also instruction on love-making)
Karma The sum of merits that a soul acquires during it's lifetime. This determine the caste to which the soul would be assigned in the next life.
Mahabharata A classical Indian epic poem written down in circa 400 B.C. previously handed down in oral form.
Stupas Shrines for the purpose of worshipping Buddha; stone shrines housing pieces of bone, hair, or personal possessions said to be relics of the Buddha.
Mauryas A dynasty established in classical India (400 BC) following invasion by Alexander the Great.
Kushanas A dynasty that succeeded the Mauryas in northwestern India who practiced Buddhism.
Tamil The language primarily spoken in southern India and Sri Lanka. Some of India's rich heritage of culture is written in the Tamil language.
Kautilya The political advisor to Chandragupta Maurya, and one of authors of Arthashastra (a treatise Chandragupta Maurya also wrote to show how he governs his people)
Himalayas The mountain region marking the northern border of the Indian subcontinent, and the home to Mt. Everest.
Vedas Aryan hymns originally transmitted orally, then eventually written down in sacred books (600 BC)
Varnas Clusters of caste groups in Aryan society consisting of four social classes: Brahmans (priests), warriors, merchants, peasants, and untouchables.
Jati A Hindu sub-caste of the untouchables.
Indra A chief deity of the Aryans depicted as a colossal, hard-drinking warrior.
Brahma The god first represented in the Hindu Triad. He is the creator of the universe and all living beings are said to have evolved from him.
Yoga Hindu system of contemplation for effecting union of the human soul with the Supreme Being or Brahma
Created by: whapmom