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exam 2 Bold course pack/ Source Reader

Cyrus - King of Persians and Medes Cyrus destroys Babylonia. Mighty Empire. Isaah calls Cyrus a messiah.
Zerubbabel and Joshua Came from Davidic line (which God promised would continue forever. Wants to rebuild the city's walls. Joshua - High Priest - Wants to rebuild the temple first.
Ezra High Priest - Returns to take over Babylonia. He is a priest and scribe/intellectual/teacher. Assembles people. Reads them the whole torah. Used Interpreters.
Nehemiah (rebuilds the wall) Rebuilds wall of Jerusalem, then temple. The temple is shabby. Torah is established as new constitution of the people.
Alexander the great (enters Jerusalem) Beginning of Helenistic influence. Very seductive to Mediterranean world. (Plato, Aristotle, etc…)
Antiochus IV - nicknamed "Epiphanes" A madman. Gives himself nickname (manifestation of God). Vicious dictator. "The ultimate maniac". Overly Helenistic. Decided to destroy Judaism, all holidays and traditions, e.g. circumcision and sabbath. Put idols in temples. Sacrifice of pigs on Altars.
Judah Maccabee - The Hammer Invents gorilla warfare. Hide, strike, hide. Maccabees destroy army. Re-dedicate temple to God. - Hannukah - re-dedication, grew from this "impossible" victory.
Antipater Comes from Idomea. Forced Jewish conversion. Antipater to Pompei Rome for advice. Continues to work for Rome in controlling Judea.
Herod the Great (Antipater's son) Antipater puts son in charge of Gallilee. Absolute opportunist. Goes to Rome and asks to be proclaimed King of Judea. He is hated. Executes 40 prominent Saducees. Executes Hasmonean family.
Pontius Pilate Roman governor of Palestine. (Procurator) Ruled as procurator longer than any other. Succesful. Procurator for jesus's crucifixion. Merciless taxation.
Jewish "parties" develop (Josephus called each one: Haireseis) In response to taxation. Orthodox form.
Philo Judaeus Important leader of Jewish community in Alexandria. Tasked himself as presenting Judaism as a philosophy.
Josephus Jewish historian and general. Turncoat in army. Wrote massive amounts.
-----End lecture Notes----- -----Begin S.Reader----- Blank
The views of the exile While the psalmist stressed the more melancholy aspect of exile, the prophet encouraged a realistic effort to make the best of the new situation.
Jehoiachin in exile … the exiled king if Judah, was provisioned from the royal coffers. This is reported both in the bible and on fragmentary administrative documents found in Babylon in which the king's name is written la-'-kin.
The Chaldean Dynasty The Chaldeans constituted the "tenth"/ last dynasty of Babylon. Called Kasdim in the bible, their name became synonymous with Arameans on the one hand and astrologers on the other. The end of the Chaldean empire hastened by strange policies of Nabonidus.
Postexilic Prophecy: Haggai Imperial permission and even financial support were secured to rebuild the temple on its ancient sacred site. The Jewish governor of Judaea, the high priest, and prophets like Haggai and Zechariah all encouraged the work.
The problem of intermarriage - Nehemiah and Ezra Under leadership of Nehemiah and Ezra, special precautions were taken in Jerusalem to prevent (and undo) intermarriages between Jews and Samaritans.
The festival of Hannukah (dedication) (Displays willingness to follow Greek custom as long as not conflicting w/ Judaism) Instituted by Maccabees to commemorate their victory over the seleucids, and their purification of the Temple. (Book of Maccabees) - Also Rabbis ascribe origins of Hannukah to miraculous event, cruse of oil (one days worth) burning for 8 days. (Talmud)
Rabban Yohanan Ben Zakkai and the destruction of Jerusalem (Ensured survival of Judaism) Rabbis regarded Rabban Yohanan, not revolutionaries, as real hero of the war. Flees from city, establishes academy in Jamnia. Hails Vespasian as future emperor. Vespasian becomes emperor and destroys temple.
Josephus on Jesus (Testimonium Flavianum) - Jewish antiquities Series of troubles that befell the Jews in the 30's C.E. pertaining to Jesus. Demonstrates how easy it was to tamper with literature of antiquity.
The Jewish Diaspora in the first century C.E. The festival of Pentacost (fifty) was celebrated 50 days after Passover. Disciples of Jesus receive holy spirit and begin to speak many languages - > symbolizing universality of Christian mission. Shows the extent of Jewish diaspora.
Created by: exoskell
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