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Al-Ghazzali – 1058-1111 Islamic theologian reconciling reason with mysticism
Allah – Islamic name for the one God
Almsgiving – obligatory charitable giving to the poor (Islam)
Ibn Rushd Averroes – 1126-1198 Islamic theologian synthesizing Aristotle with Islam
Bahai – modern syncretistic religion, originally from Persia; "All denominations lead to the one God."
Dervish – Islamic mystic who attempts to gain ecstasy by dancing (another name for Sufi)
Druses – Islamic, apocalyptic, exclusivistic, non-proselytizing sect found largely in Lebanon
Elijah Muhammad – 1897-1975 leader of U.S. Black Muslims, Nation of Islam
Infidel – derogatory Muslim term for a non-Muslim
Jihad – Islamic holy war against infidels; also includes ethics about treatment of innocent in warfare; can refer to an inward struggle
Koran (Qu’ran) – Islamic scripture, revelations received by the prophet Muhammad, usually transliterated as Qu'ran
Malcolm X – African-American spokesman for Nation of Islam who later challenged its doctrine of racial prejudice
Mecca – Islamic city of obligatory pilgrimage; Muslims face Mecca when praying
Mohammed – 570-632 C.E. Arab founder of Islam, "the prophet" who recited the Qur’an, preached theistic monotheism
Mosque – a building for Islamic worship
Muslim, Moslem – an adherent of Islam, "one who submits to God"
Nanak – 1469-1539 founder of Sikh religion, he was originally a Hindu in India
Nation of Islam – "Black Muslims"; African-American movement with prejudicial views against whites and Jews
Palestine – geographical area in which ancient and modern Israel have been established; also, a proposed Arab nation in that region
Pilgrimage – a journey to attend a shrine; pilgrimage to Mecca is obligatory in Islam
Ramadan – month-long Muslim festival involving daytime fasting
Sabaean-Mandean – an ancient monotheistic religion of the Middle East; practices baptism
Shia – sect of Islam predominant in Iran and Libya; has present-day living prophet (imam)
Sufis – Islamic mystics; originated in Persia, some are dancing dervishes, influenced Al Ghazzali
Sunni – sect of Islam predominant outside of Iran; based upon consensus agreement on Qu’ran; Muhammad was the last prophet
Adventist – a 19th century U.S. movement led by William Miller which declared that 1844 would be the second coming of Christ; influenced Seventh Day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses
Amish – pacifist Protestant sect committed to living a simple, 19th century life style, found in rural Pennsylvania
Anabaptist – original Baptist churches of the European Reformation; associated with peasant rebellions of the 16th century
Anne Lee – 18th century founder of Shakers, claimed to be feminine incarnation of Christ
Billy Graham – 20th century Protestant Evangelical, effective preacher with simple message; salvation by grace
Brigham Young – 19th century Mormon leader; took over after Smith's assassination and led Mormons to Utah
Charles Taze Russell – 1852-1916 millenarian preacher, founder of Jehovah's Witnesses
Christian Science – a denomination founded by Mary Baker Eddy; emphasizes spiritual healing
Cult – a small sect with devoted followers; a pejorative term for a new religious movement denomination (especially one which has doctrines or rituals outside the mainstream, or is abusive of followers)
David Koresh – self-proclaimed second Jesus who led the Waco group of Branch Davidians into a 1993 battle with federal agents
Ellen G. White – 1826-1915 founder of Seventh Day Adventists
Evangelical – modern born-again Christians who emphasize Bible's authority; proselytizing, Fundamentalist Protestants
George Fox – 1624-1691 Englishman who founded Quakers (Society of Friends)
Holy Roller – derogatory term for 20th century Pentecostals or Charismatic Christians who sway or fall down in ecstasy
Jehovah's Witnesses – proselytizing denomination founded by C.T. Russell; set apocalyptic dates, deny the trinity, refuse participation in civil affairs
Jim Jones – founder of People's Temple, a cult which committed Mass suicide in Guyana in 1978
John Humphrey Noyes – 19th century founder of Oneida Perfectionists; advocated complex marriage (multiple husbands & wives)
Joseph Smith Jr. – 1805-1844 founder of Latter Day Saints, "the prophet" who translated Book of Mormon, other revelations
Juche – the state sponsored religion of North Korea
Kingdom Hall – a building for Jehovah's Witness meetings
L. Ron Hubbard – 20th century science fiction writer who founded Scientology, Dianetics
Macumba – Brazilian popular religion with African roots
Martin Luther King – 1929-1968 Baptist minister, nonviolent civil rights leader of African-Americans
Mormon – Also called Latter Day Saints, Christian denomination started in 19th century by Joseph Smith; emphasizes family, temple rituals, no smoking/coffee
Pentecostal – 20th century American denomination; emphasizes presence of the Holy Spirit; speaking in tongues
Perfectionists – 19th century Oneida community founded by J.H. Noyes; practiced communism and complex marriage
Quaker – pacifistic religion founded by G. Fox; no clergy, no sacraments; also known as the Society of Friends
Scientology – 20th century denomination founded by L. Ron Hubbard; opponents consider it to be a mere front for the Dianetics Movement and having cultish tendencies
Seventh Day Adventist – 19th century Protestant sect founded by Ellen White; apocalyptic, vegetarian, worship on Saturday
Shakers – 19th century American sect famous for their rigorous dancing; celibate, communitarian; founded by Ann Lee, now extinct
Sun Myung Moon – Korean founder of Unification Church, considered a cult by many
William Miller – 19th century apocalyptic preacher, predicted the second coming in 1844; Adventist, Millerite movement
Created by: junyeismom
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