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AP World Unit One

Flashcards over Unit One. (hapters 1-3)

What was the first human-like creature? Australopithecus (Lucy) Found in Ethiopia
First Hominid species to use fire? Homo Erectus
How were the settlements in Africa planned? Settlements were planned around the seasonal movement of game and fish.
Where did humans migrate after they left Africa? First to the Middle East. From there, eastward into Europe and Westward into Asia.
What occurred as European peoples moved southward into warmer regions? -Altered hunting habits -New spear technology -Cave painting (records, possibly early writing)
Which new technologies emerged in central Europe, Ukraine, and Russia? -Bone Needles -Multilayer clothing -Weaving -Storage Pits -Baskets
Who were the Aborigines? -Took Boats to Australia. (40K years ago) -Dreamtime: Alternate world viewed through alternate states of consciousness and hallucinogenic drugs. Where and when the world was created. Describes how everything relates to each other.
what was the route of migration into North America? From Siberia, across the Bering Strait (by land bridge)and down the west coast of America.
What does the wide distribution of Clovis technology suggest? -Arrowheads were found across a large area of North America. -Suggests cultural diffusion and indirect contact between peoples.
How did Austronesian migrations differ from other early patterns of Human movement? -Occurred recently --> 3500 years ago -Waterborne migration -Happened quickly; over 2500 years
How did the hunting and gathering economy shape other aspects of Paleolithic societies? -Egalitarian: Lacking Inequalities -Lacked specialization; everyone had the same set of skills. -Equality among men and women.
Why did Paleolithic societies have more leisure time? -Hunter-gatherers worked fewer hours. -"Not because they had so much, but because they wanted so little."
How did Paleolithic people altar their natural environments? By deliberately setting fires to encourage te growth of particular plants.
What does the presence of Venus figurines across Europe suggest? -It had a strong female dimension, embodied a Great Goddess, and involved the renewal of life. -Moon Cycles. -Fertility Cycles.
Why did some Paleolithic peoples abandon earlier ways to live more settled lives? -Climatic warming allowed many plants and animals to flourish. -Increased food stocks, allowing more settled life.
What is a Shaman? A Person believed to have the ability to connect between the human and spirit worlds.
What were the transformations brought about by the Neolithic Revolution? -Farming Growing Populations -Cities -States -Settled Villages -Animal Borne diseases -Sates -Civilizations
why is the Neolithic Revolution is most important event in Human History? -Second Great human process after settlement of the globe. -"When the food and security are taken care of, cultures begin to flourish"
What is Domestication? -Domesticate -> "dome"=home (to tame) Plants were domesticated for mass production. Animals for taming for herds.
What is the importance of intensification in the Neolithic Age? -Intensification: getting more for less. (In this case, getting mote food for less land) -More food means more people -> More food and land required.
How did Agriculture emerge? -Warmer, wetter, and more stable environments. -Cereal grains -New knowledge and technology -> better crop yields -Growing populations led to more food production and storage.
Where did the Neolithic Revolution happen? -China -Fertile Crescent -New Guinea -Mesoamerica -Andes
Why did the American peoples lack sources of protein, manure, and power to pull carts? -Lack of animals that could be domesticated. -(Beasts of Burden)
How did Agriculture spread? -Diffusion: spread of ideas through interactions with "outsiders" -Colonization: People moving to new lands. (Conquest and Absorption)
Where was agriculture sometimes resisted? -Places where the land sucked or where farming wasn't needed. -Somme hunter-gatherer peoples preferred the freer life compared to the hard life of farming.
When did moist Paleolithic societies die out? By 1 CE (Common Era)
What are Pastoral Societies? -Also Known As; Herders, Nomads. -Depended on animals to survive. (Sheep, Goats, Cattle, and Camels) -Very Mobile. -Clan/Tribe based.
What are Agricultural Village Societies? -Societies that kept some freedoms of hunter/gatherers -No Kings/Chiefs -Society based on Kinship -Some inequalities (Men over women, Elders over young)
What is a Chiefdom? -Power is passed through generations -Chiefs rarely used force for power (Charisma, Gifts, and Religious Status)
What is Horticulture? Hoe based Agriculture.
Mesopotamian Civilization -Between Tigris and Euphrates rivers (Fertile Crescent) -Cuneiform= Earliest known writing -Not very centralized government -City States -Code of Hammurabi
Egyptian Civilization -Nile River -3 Kingdoms: Old- Pyramids Middle- Nubians, Pharaoh New- Militaristic -Hatshepsut -> Women rulers (More gender equality) -Hieroglyphics -Papyrus= Paper
Indus River Valley Civilizations -Indoor Plumbing -Long distance trade (Indus seals found in China) -Hinduism -Caste System
Chinese Civilization -Shang (first dynasty) -> Oracle bones -Zhou (longest dynasty) -> Mandate of Heaven. (The emperor can rule as long as god pleases and if he is good to the people)