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WR Christianity

Term Words

Apostles -major figures in the early church
Aquinas -1225-1274 Catholic theologian, synthersized aristotle with catholicism
Arianism – early Christian heresy of Arius; "the Father is greater than the Son"
Augustine – 354-430 Catholic theologian who synthesized Plato & Christianity; the Church administers the sacraments; major opponent of Pelagius and Donatus
Baptism – initiation/conversion rite of water immersion
Baptist – large Protestant denomination; emphasizes adult Baptism by full immersion
Bible – the basic Christian canon, the books of the Old and New Testaments
Bishop – a member of the clergy having direct authority over other priests or ministers
Canon – an official list, especially of scripture that religious leaders accept as authoritative
Cardinal – a member of a powerful council in the Catholic Church; that selects the new pope; the pope can name new cardinals
Cathedral – the main church in a Catholic diocese
Catholic – Holy Roman Catholic Apostolic Church; largest Christian denomination, syncretistic, follows the Pope
Christ – Greek term, "anointed one," given to Jesus of Galilee, founder of Christianity
Christianity – all those churches accepting the role of Jesus as Son of God
Church – a building for Christian worship; a denomination, especially the Roman Catholic or an established sect
Clergy – a minister of the church, religious leadership
Communion – Christian ritual partaking of bread and wine in remembrance of Christ
Confirmation – sacrament of full initiation into the Church
Constantine – 4th century Roman Emperor, Christian convert
Conversion – forming an affiliation to a religion; many sects proselytize in hopes of gaining converts
Creed – a denomination's doctrinal system
Crucifix – model of Jesus on a cross
Crusades – 1095-1291 wars launched by the popes in order to re-capture Palestine from Muslims
Disciple – one of the twelve apostles selected by Jesus in Galilee, also the name of an American Protestant sect
Easter – Christian spring holiday celebrating the last days of Jesus, his crucifixion, and resurrection; many Teutonic and Celtic symbols (e.g., eggs, rabbits) have come in to this holiday
Episcopalian – what Church of England is called in the U.S.; similar to Catholics in ritual; priests can marry
Epistles – books of the New Testament which are letters by the apostles (e.g., Paul, Peter, Jude, James)
Eucharist – see Communion; Christian ritual partaking of bread and wine in remembrance of Christ
Evangelist – a preacher, especially a revivalist or missionary; also a term for the gospel authors Mark, Matthew, Luke, John
Excommunication – when someone is kicked out of a denomination or order
Gentile – Jewish and Christian term for people who are not of Jewish origin
Gnosticism – 1st century movement emphasizing secret knowledge about dualism of matter/spirit; foundation of many heresies
Gospel – one of the first four books of the New Testament; the "good news" about Jesus and salvation
Heaven – state of spiritual bliss in the afterlife, dwelling place of God and angels (e.g., Islam, Christianity)
Henry VIII – 1491-1547 English king who declared himself head of the Church in order to get a divorce
Heresy – a statement not in accord with a church's doctrine is declared a heresy by that church
Holy Communion – see Communion and Eucharist; – Christian ritual partaking of bread and wine in remembrance of Christ;
Holy Spirit – third person of Trinity; indwelling spirit of God in Christians, also known as Holy Ghost
Immaculate Conception – The doctrine that Jesus was conceived in his mother's womb without original sin
Indulgences – medieval Catholic practice of letting people give money to the Church to escape (or lessen time in) purgatory
Infallibility – Vatican Council of 1870 declared "The Pope speaking ex-cathedra on doctrine or morals is infallible"
Inquisition – Catholic persecution of heretics and witches, starting in 12th century
Jesuit – Catholic order of priests founded by Ignatius Loyola in 16th century, the Society of Jesus
Jesus – 1st century Galilean worshipped as Son of God by Christians; accepted as prophet by Muslims; life described in New Testament
John Calvin – 1509-1564 Protestant reformer; preached predestination; influenced Reformed Churches, Puritans
John the Baptist – 1st century Jewish prophet; foretold the coming Messiah; baptized Jesus, executed by Herod
Lent – ascetic period from Ash Wednesday until Easter
Lord's Supper – see Communion, Eucharist and Holy Communion
Mary – mother of Jesus, Catholics give her special veneration
Mass – Church service culminating in Eucharist (Catholic)
Messiah – expected Jewish savior king; Christians accept Jesus as the Messiah
New Testament – part of the Bible describing Jesus and Apostles; it is composed of the four gospels, the Book of Acts, and many epistles by Paul, Peter, John, James, Jude
Nun – pious, celibate female monastic
Old Testament – part of Bible written before Jesus, including the Jewish Torah, and writings of the Hebrew and Israelite prophets
Ordination – sacrament of initiation into the Catholic priesthood
Origen – 185-255 Christian mystic, incorporated Neoplatonism
Original sin – when Adam sinned, the entire human race fell from grace
Papal – pertaining to the pope
Passion – suffering of Jesus on the cross
Pastor – title given to Christian clergy, especially head of a local church
Paul – 1st century Christian convert Apostle; wrote many of the New Testament epistles
Penance – ritual punishment in order to expiate sin
Peter – Galilean fisherman disciple of Jesus; became apostle and first pope
Pope – Bishop of Rome, head of Catholic Church; may issue ex-cathedra, infallible statements
Predestination – doctrine that God has already determined who will be saved, before they are born (Calvin)
Presbyterianism – Protestant denomination growing out of Puritans; emphasizes governance by councils over local churches; influenced by Calvinist doctrine
Protestant – Christian denominations growing out of Europe's Reformation of the 16th century
Purgatory – afterlife in which sins are expiated, prior to resurrection or entrance into heaven (Catholic doctrine)
Roman Catholic – formal name of Catholic Church, which is centered in Rome, Holy Roman Catholic Apostolic Church
Sacrament – rituals, especially those of Catholic Church
Saint – honorific title given to persons who led exemplary lives, and as angels can intercede for people (Catholic); Paul used the term to describe early Christians in general
Salvation – a promise of liberation from the human problem; heaven, resurrection or a new world order on this planet
Schism – split between segments of a church, Great Schism occurred in 1054 between Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox
Sin – falling out of relationship with the deity, specific acts which offend the deity
Synoptic gospels – New Testament books of Mark, Matthew, Luke; record the life and ministry of Jesus
Transubstantiation – Roman Catholic doctrine that the bread and wine of the Eucharist become body and blood of Christ
Vulgate – Roman Catholic, Latin version of Bible completed 400 C.E
Created by: junyeismom
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