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Jewish History Test

Where are Ashkenazi Jews from? Western Europe
Where are Sephardi Jews from? Spain
First Wave Sephardic Jews from Spain (1654 - 1800s)
Second Wave German and Polish Jews (1830 - 1880)
Third Wave Eastern European (mostly Russian) Jews (1880 - 1920)
First time Jews came to Canada 1750
Canada in 1750? New France (colony of France)
Which was the only religion allowed in New France? Catholics
How did Jews immigrate to New France? By hiding their Judaism, by converting but practicing Judaism in secret or by converting
When did Britain take over New France? 1759
First major wave of Jews arriving in New France 1760
Where did the Jews go and come from when they arrived in New France? Came from USA, went to Montreal
What kind of Jews arrived in New France? Sephardic Jews, mostly well-educated
How many Jews were living in British North America in 1831? 197 000
What kind of jobs did Jews in British North America do? Traders and businessmen
What are the major Jewish centres in Canada? Vancouver, Toronto and Montreal
Which law prohibited Jews from entering New France? The Black Code of 1685
How many Jews came to North America in the First Wave? 23
First Wave Route Spain > Amsterdam > Brazil > New Amsterdam (NY) and Newport
Second Wave Route Poland and Germany > United States (West, South, Midwest)
Third Wave Route Eastern Europe (Russia) > NYC > Montreal and Toronto
Push factors of First Wave Expulsion
Pull factors of First Wave Financial opportunities, religious freedom
Push factors of Second Wave Poverty, violence, persecution + discrimination
Pull factors of Second Wave Safety, religious freedom, new opportunities
Push factors of Third Wave Pogroms
Pull factors of Third Wave New opportunities, safety, religious freedom
First wave jobs Trade, import, export, business
Second wave jobs Banking, financing, store owners
Third wave jobs Garment industry, push-cart pedlars
Religious life - First wave Sephardic
Religious life - Second wave Orthodox + Reform
Religious life- Third Wave Didn't adapt, spoke Yiddish, Orthodox, Ashkenazi
How did Esther Brandeau enter New France? By pretending to be a man and taking a boat from France to New France
Did Esther Brandeau stay in New France? No bc she refused to convert to Catholicism
How did Marianne Perious enter New France? Snuck in, wanted to find adventure and a husband
Did Marianne Perious stay in New France? Yes bc she converted to Catholicism
Why did many Jews work in the garment industry? Bc they had lots of experience from EU (didn't own farms), filled a niche market, didn't have to speak English or be educated and all you need is a room + a sewing machine (doesn't cost a lot of money)
In 1740 were Jews allowed to be citizens of England? No
In 1740 were Jews allowed to be citizens of British North America? Yes
What did Samuel Jacobs achieve? Founded a brewery in Louisbourg, was a leading business man of the colony, was colony's largest importer, supplier to British Army
What was Samuel Jacobs' relationship to Judaism? Added his Hebrew name to his formal signature, wrote Hebrew, refused to join or contribute to synagogue, married a Catholic and raised his kids as Catholics, in court swore on Jewish bible
What was the role of Jews in business and trade in British North America? Opened new routes, negotiated w/ First Nations, opened many businesses
What was the role of Jews in politics in British North America? Signed petitions + declarations for reform and representative assembly, against Quebec Act, took government and military positions
What challenges did Jews face in the early 19th century? No Jews women, so Jewish men married non-Jews + their children were not Jewish
Name and location of Canada's 1st synagogue, founding date? Shearith Israel, Montreal, founded 1768
Ethnicity Affiliation that results from cultural or racial ties
Religion Set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature and purpose of life that usually involves ritual observances and a moral code that guides conduct of behaviour
Religious To practice one's religion
Race A group of people related by common descent or heredity
Culture Behaviours and beliefs that are characteristic of a particular social, ethnic or age group and/or the ways of living built up by one group of the people and transmitted from one generation to another
Nationality status of belonging to a particular nation and having ties to this nation
Secular Not pertaining to or connected with religion, spirituality or sacred
Secularization to make secular and separate from religious or spiritual connection
Assimilation Process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another, ppl of different backgrounds come to see themselves as part of a larger national family
Atheist Person who doesn't believe in the existence of G-d
Agnostic Person who holds existence of G-d + essential nature of things are unknown
Apostasy Total desertion or departure from one's religion
Acculturation Process of adopting cultural traits of social patterns of another group
Anti-Semitism Discrimination, hostility or persecution of Jews
Racism Belief that differences among various races determine ability for achievement, usually involving the idea that one's own race is superior
Purpose of synagogues during immigration Served as central community institution
First wave: acculturation or assimilated? Acculturation bc they had Sunday school, which is a Christian idea
Second wave: Assimilated or acculturated? Assimilated bc lots of intermarriage
Which wave of immigration showed the most diversity in Jewish backgrounds and denominations? The Second Wave
Religious life in 1900s? Observed High Holidays, celebrated life cycle events, children of immigrants no longer keep kosher, decline of Shabbat observance, many didn't belong to synagogue
Immigration? Moving to a different country
Emigration? When someone leaves their native country
Why was the Gradis family important to New France? The colony of New France was dependant on the Gradis family bc the Gradis family used the money they made to provide food, supplies and ammunition to the colony throughout the 1750s
Where did Jews first settled when they came to Toronto? St. John's Ward
What was St. John's Ward like? Very crowded, poor, unmaintained slums
Why did the Jews move to Kensington Market? More space, better housing/accommodations, better life, cheaper rent
Denomination Branch of religion united under common beliefs + practices
4 Major Jewish Denominations Orthodox, Reform, Conservative, Reconstructionist
What are all denominations of Judaism connected to? G-d/Godliness, spirituality, Torah, Israel, larger Jewish ppl
What do different denominations of Judaism differ about? divinity of Torah, Halacha, role of women, Israel, modernity
Oldest denomination? Orthodoxy (1000+ yrs old)
Newest denomination? Reconstructionism (less than 100 yrs old)
Which denomination has the most Jews in North America? Reform Judaism
Which denomination has the least Jews in North America? Reconstructionism
Just Jewish? Not associated w/ any denominations, usually secular
Orthodox Judaism? Believes in traditional interpretation + application of Torah laws, observant/traditional Judaism, wide range, difficult to define
What are the different issues facing Orthodoxy today? Growing polarization, women's issues, lack of unity
Polarization Haredi + Modern Orthodox are growing apart
What is Hasidism? Branch of Haredi (ultra-orthodox) Judaism
When + where did Hasidism begin? 1700s, Eastern Europe
How do Hasids promote spirituality? Through mysticism
Who is the leader of the Hasidic community? Their Rebbe
Different sects of Hasidic Judaism? Based on town of origin, different sects = different traditions
What are some examples of different Hasidic sects? Bobov, Lubavitch (Chabad), Satmar
How do Hasidic Jews pray? Prayer is accompanied by melodies called nigunim; believe in importance of kavanah (mental concentration)
What do Hasidic men wear? Dark jackets, trousers, white shirts, black hat, tzitzis, kippot encircled by fur
Why do Hasidic men dress the way they do? Historically the dress of all Eastern European Jews, symbolizes importance of tradition
Bekishe Long black silk coat
Payot Hebrew word for sidelocks or side curls
Divinity of Torah for Orthodox Jews? Vry committed to Torah, believe Torah is God's direct written + spoken communication from Mt. Sinai
Halacha for Orthodox Jews? Believe in Shulchan Aruch, Torah, Talmud, Jews must follow Halachah
Role of women for Orthodox Jews? No egalitarianism, women can't read Torah, women do charity + community work, mechitza- separation between men + women in shuls, men lead religious services, in some shuls, women can read D'var Torah, women do charity + community work
Halacha? Jewish law
Israel for Modern Orthodox Jews? Modern Orthodox support gov't of Israel
Israel for Haredi Jews? Do not support Israeli gov't bc not run by Orthodox law + no Messiah yet, believe in Israel as land G-d promised for us + allows Jews to fulfill specific mitzvot
Modernity for Modern Orthodox Jews? Completely modernized
Modernity for Haredi Jews? Not allowed to attend mixed-gender universities, interact w/ non-Jews often, be exposed to non-Jewish ideas or media
When + where did Reform Judaism begin? 19th century Germany (1800s), 200 yrs ago
Why did Reform Judaism begin? Bc they were committed to Judaism + Jewish values + wanted to be members of German society
What did the first Reform Jews believe? In changing Judaism to be active in both Jewish + general society
Tikkun Olam in Reform Judaism? Central
Reform Judaism Affirms G-d, Torah + Israel; believes Judaism must change + adapt to modern society to survive; believe in including all Jews, believe in Tikkun Olam, believe all humans are created in the image of G-d + are G-d's partners in healing the world
Tikkun Olam? Charity + mitzvoth
Issues facing Reform Judaism? Pluralism (no clear consensus on rules) + low communal participation
Created by: lovinglifexoxo