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AP Barrons Chapter 7

Stack #134330

Agribusiness The set of economic and political relationships that organize food production for commercial purposes. It includes activities ranging from seed production, to retailing, to consumption of agricultural products.
Agriculture The art and science of producing food from the land and tending live stock for the purpose of human consumption.
Animal husbandry An agricultural activity associated with the raising of domesticated animals, such as cattle, horses, sheep and goats.
Biotechnology A form of tech. that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
Capital-intensive agriculture Form of Ag. that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods - a process requiring very little human labor.
Commercial agricultural economy All agricultural activity generated for the purpose of selling, not necessarily for local consumption.
Dairying An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, mot commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
Desertification The process by which formerly fertile lands become increasingly arid, unproductive, and desert-like.
Domestication The conscious manipulation of plant and animal species by humans in order to sustain themselves.
Extensive agriculture An agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area.
Feedlots Places where livestock are concentrated in a tiny area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; often referred to as factory farms.
Fertile Crescent Area located in the crescent-shaped zone near the S.E. Mediterranean coast (Irag, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey) which was once a lush environment and on the of the first hearths of domestication and thus agricultural activity.
Genetically modified foods Foods that are mostly products of organisms that have had their genes altered in a lab for specific purposes, such as disease resistance, increased productivity, or nutritional value allowing growers greater control, predictability and efficiency.
Green Revolution The development of higher-yield and fast-growing crops through increased technology, pesticides, and fertilizers transferred from the developed to developing world to alleviate the problem of food supply in those regions of the globe.
Hunting and gathering The killing of wild animals and fish as well a sthe gathering of fruits, roots, nuts, and other plants for sustenance.
Industrial Revolution The rapid economic changes that occurred in agriculture and manufacturing in England in the late 18th centry and that rapidly spread to other parts of the developed world.
Intensive cultivation Any kind of agricultural activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield.
Labor-intensive agriculture Type of ag. that requires large levels of manual labor to be successful.
Livestock ranching An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geograpic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
Mechanization In agriculture, the replacement of human labor with techology or machines.
Mediterranean agriculture An agricultural system in the Mediterranean-style climates of W. Europ, California, Chilie and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops like grapes, avocados, olives, nuts, fruits, and veggies comprise profitable agricultural operations.
Pastoralism A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
Pesticides Chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals.
Planned agricultural economy An agricultural economy found in communist nations in which the govt controls both agricultural production and distribution.
Plantation A large, frequently foreign-owned piece of agricultural land devoted to the production of a single export crop.
Salinization Process that occurs when soils in arid areas are brought under cultivation through irrigation. In arid climates, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residues that render the soil infertile.
Shifting cultivation The use of tropical forest clearings for crop production until their fertility is lost. Plots are then abandoned, and farmers move on to new sites.
Slash-and-burn agriculture System of cultivation that usually exists in tropical areas where vegetation is cut close to the groudn and then ignited. The fire introduces nutrients into the soil, thereby making it productive for a relatively short period of time.
Specialty crops Crops including items like peanuts and pineapples, which are produced, usually in developing countries, for export.
Subsistence agricultural economy Any farm economy in which most crops are grown for nearly exclusive family or local consumption.
Swidden Land that is prepared for agriculture by using the slash-and-burn method.
Topsoil loss Loss fo the top fertil layer of soil is lost through erosion. It is a tremendous problem in areas with fragile soils, steep slopes, or torrential seasonal rains.
Transhumance The movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns, generally lowland areas in the winter, and highland areas in the summer.
Urban sprawl The process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land.
von Thunen model An agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent. Activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be close to the market. Activities that are more exten
Created by: gwendolyn_dba
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