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Unit 2 AP Human Geo

Maps, Scale, Space, and Place

absolute distance the distance that can be measured with a standard unit of length, such as a mile or kilometer
absolute location the exact position of an object or place, measured within the spatial coordinates of a grid system
accessibility the relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place
azimuthal projection a map projection in which the plane is most developable surface
breaking point the outer edge of a city sphere of influence, used in the law of retail gravitation to describe the are of a city's hinterlands that depend on that city for its retail supply
catograms a type of thematic map that transforms space such that the political unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by the largest relative area
choropleth map a thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent spatial data as average values per unit area
cognitive map an image of a portion of the earth's surface that an individual creates in his or her mind. Cognitive maps can include knowledge of actual locations and relationships between locations as well as a personal perceptions and preferences of particular places
complementarity the actual or potential relationship between two places, usually referring to economic interactions
connectivity the degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places
contagious diffusion the spread of a disease, innovation, or cultural traits through direct contact with another person or another place
distance decay effect the decrease in interaction between two phenomena, places, or people as the distance between them increases
dot map thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations of specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes, car accident, or births
expansion diffusion the spread of ideas, innovations, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange
friction of distance a measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places
fuller projection a type of map projection that maintains the accurate size shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction such that the four cardinal directions-north, south, east, and west-no longer have any meaning
geoid the actual shape of the earth, which is rough and oblate or slightly squashed; the earth's circumference is longer around the equator then it is along the meridians, from north-sough circumference
gravity model a mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other
hazards anything on the landscape, real or perceived, that is potentially threatening. Hazards are usually avoided in spatial behavior
hierarchical diffusion a type of diffusion which something is transmitted between places because of something the two places have in common
International Date Line the ling of longitude that marks where each new day begins, centered on the 18th meridian
isoline map line that connects points of equal or very similar values
large-scale a relatively small ratio between the map units and the ground units. Large-scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions the small-scale maps
latitude the angular distance north or south of the equator, defined by lines of latitude, or parallels
law of retail gravitation law that states people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business because larger cities have a wider influence on the hinterlands that surround them
location charts on a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical information of a particular political unit or jurisdiction
longitude the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian, defined by lines of longitude, or meridians
map projection transferring the earth's sphere onto a flat surface. This term can also be used to describe the type of map that results from the process of projecting. All map projection have distortions in either area, direction, distance, or shape
mercator projection a true conformal cylindrical map projection, the Mercator projection is particularly useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction. The projections are famous for their distortion in area that makes landmasses at the poles appear oversized
meridian a line of longitude that runs north-south. All lines of longitude are equal length and intersect at the poles
parallel an east-west line of latitude that runs parallel to the equator and the marks the distance north or south of the equator
preference map a map that displays individual preferences for certain places
prime meridian an imaginary line passing through the royal observatory in Greenwich, England, which marks the 0 degree line of longitude
proportional symbols map a thematic map in which the size of a chosen symbol-such as a circle or triangle-indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region
reference map a map type that shows reference information for a particular place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigating
relative distance a measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic connectivity between two places
relative location the position of a place relative to places around it
relocation diffusion the diffusion of ideas, innovations, behavior, and the like from one place to another through migration
resolution a map's smallest discernable unit. If, for example, an object has to be one kilometer long in order to show up on a map, then that map's resolution in one kilometer
scale the ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that same area on the earth's surface
site the absolute location of a place, describe by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics
situation the relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and the interdependencies within that system; a place's spatial context
small-scale map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth's quite small. Small-scale maps usually depict large areas
spatial diffusion spatial diffusion refers to the ways in which phenomena, such as technological innovations, cultural trends, or even outbreaks of disease, travel over space
thematic map a type of map that displays one or more variables-such as population, or income level-within a specific area
time-space convergence the idea that distance between some places is actually shrinking as a technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between between those places
topographic maps maps that use isolines to represent constant elevations. If you took a topographic map out into the field and walked exactly along the path of an isoline on your map, you would always stay at the same elevation
topological space the amount connectivity between places, regardless of the absolute distance separating them
transferability the costs involved in the moving goods from one place to another
visualization use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are three-dimensional or interactive
Created by: sajavoo
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