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ST110 A&P CH. 2

Chemistry, Cellular Structure, and Function

What are the stages of mitosis? interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
What does the medical term one mean? mono-
What do organelles contain? mitochondria, golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum
What does the medical term many mean? poly-
What does the medical term two mean? bi
Carbohydrates are also known as? sugars
Proteins are composed of building blocks called? amino acids
What is not a function of the plasma membrane? ribosomes
In what stage of mitosis does DNA replicate? interphase
In what stage of mitosis does chromatin granules become organized and spindle fibers appear? prophase
In what stage of mitosis does chromosomes align across center of the cell? metaphase
Two-rod shaped organelles that migrate and participate in cell division is known as? centrioles
What is not one of the primary groups of organic compound? carbons
ATP stands for? active transport energy
What does not require cellular energy? passive diffusion
Neutral substance of the pH level is what? 7
Fundamental unit of a chemical is? atom
What is the basic unit of life? cell
What is the steady state within the organism? homeostasis
What does physiology mean? study of function
What does microbiology mean? study of microscopic plants and animals
What does pharmacology mean? study of drugs and their actions
What is defined as anything that takes up space? matter
What elements are identified on the periodic table? gas, liquids, and solids
Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, and Nitrogen make up how much percent of the human body? 96 percent
Elements are composed of what? atoms
An atom consist of a nucleus containing what? protons and neutrons, with electrons in orbit around the nucleus
What denotes the atomic number of an element? the number of protons
What equals the atomic weight? the number of protons plus the number of neutrons
Electrons have what kind of charge? negative
Protons have what kind of charge? postive
Neutrons have what kind of charge? neutral
What is formed when two or more atoms combine? molecule
Atoms of different elements combine, the molecules can also be called what? compounds
What is the most abundant substance in living cells? water
What is water used for? participates in key cellular reactions known as universal solvent and functions.
Respiration, temperature control, protects fetus, brain, and spinal cord, and body lubricant are all what of water? functions
Atoms combine by what? bonding together and sharing electrons
What happens when atoms combine and bond together? a molecule or a compound is formed
What is a electrolyte? molecules that associates in water to form individual ions
What are hydrogen bonds? they hold molecules together
What denotes an electron? electron donor
What accepts an electron? electron acceptor
What accepts electrons for a short time then loses them? electron carriers
Water and some acids, bases, and salts are examples of what? inorganic molecules
A chemical reactions in which water is added to the subunits of a large molecule to break it apart into smaller molecules is known as what? hydrolysis
Why is oxygen needed? to release energy from nutrients and is used to drive the cells metabolism
What is released as waste product during energy releasing metabolic reactions? carbon dioxide
Substances that release ions in water are called what? electrolytes
What are acids? electrolytes that release hydrogen ions in water
What are bases? electrolytes that release hydroxide ions in water
What are carbohydrates? provide energy for cellular activities
What are carbohydrates composed of? carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What are the four major compounds? carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid
What are the three main parts of the cell? plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus
What is composed of inner and outer membranes and is involved with energy releasing chemical reactions? mitochondria
What is also known as the "power plant" of a cell? mitchondria
How many chromosomes contain DNA? 46
What is anabolism? builds larger molecules from smaller ones- requires energy
What is catabolism? breaks down large molecules to smaller ones- releases energy
What is the branch of the natural sciences that deals with the composition substances and their properties and reactions? chemistry
What is kinetic energy? energy in motion
What is the substance that can be broken down into two or more other substances by chemical means? compound
What determines the atomic number of an atom? the number of protons
Lipids are also known as? fats
What is composed of chains of molecules? triglycerides
What is cell shape? controlled by the extra cellular matrix and the cytroskeletal structure within the cell
Who coined the term cell? Robert Hooke
A positively or negatively charged atom is referred to as? ion
What are the subunits of nucleotides? nucleic acids, RNA, and DNA
What is cytoplasm? material that lies within cytoplasmic membrane
What is carried out in the cytoplasm of a cell? cell expansion, growth, and replication
What is the immediate area surrounding the cytoplasm? cytoplasmic membrane
What are membranes composed of? phospholipids and proteins
What retains the cytoplasm? the cell membrane
What forms the package for our genes and guides the life process of the cell? nucleus
What is the site where ribosomal RNA is transcribed, processed, and assembled into ribosome subunits? nucleous
What are organized packages designed for the storage of genetic material? chromatin
What digest waste materials and food within the cells? lysosomes
What are vacuoles? membranous sacs that are formed when a portion of the cell membrane folds inward and pinches off
What is the transport network for molecules targeted or certain modifications and specific final destinations? endoplasmic reticulum
cilia and flagellar propulsion, muscle contraction, and white blood cells that move into surrounding tissues and seek invaders are considered what? examples of cell movement
What serves as storage units for hereditary information? the nucleic acids, RNA, and DNA
What is the process known as when two strands separate and each one serves as a temple to make another complementary stand. semiconservative replication
Cell division for eucaryotic cells is called what? mitosis
What results in formation of gametes? meiosis
The process of oxidizing food molecules to carbon dioxide and water is known as? cellular respiration
Created by: casenichole