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W History 2 - 20th C

World History II - 20th Century

Term/QuestionDefinition/Answer
What were the factors that produced World War I? Alliances that divided Europe into competing camps, Nationalistic feelings, Diplomatic failures, Imperialism, Competition over colonies, and Militarism
The event that began WW I was Assassination of Austria's Archduke Ferdinand
World War I began in the year ____, but the US did not enter the war until ____. 1914, 1917
How did communism rise in Russia? Rise of communism, Bolshevik Revolution and civil war, Vladimir Lenin's New Economic Policy, and Lenin's successor - Joseph Stalin
Where was WW II fought? Europe, Asia, Africa and the Pacific Islands.
5 Causes of WWII- Aggression by totalitarian powers: 1) Nationalism, 2) Failure of the Treaty of Versailles, 3) Weakness of the League of Nations, 4) Appeasement, 5) Tendencies towards isolationism and pacifism in Europe and the United States
WW II Leaders; who was the US President? Franklin D. Roosevelt
WW II Leaders: Who was the US President after the death of FDR? Harry Truman
WW II - After Hitler annexed Austria and Czecholslavkia to Germany, Britain and France adopted a policy of appeasement. What does that mean? Britain and France did not actively oppose the annexations. They stayed quiet, hoping Hitler would not expand futher.
What happened after Germany invaded Poland in 1939? France and Britain declared war on Germany
What did the Soviet Union agree in the Nazi-Soviet Pact signed in 1939? They agreed not to attack Germany if Hitler invaded Poland (which he did a month later.)
Year? German invasion of Poland 1939
Year? Fall of France 1940
Year? Battle of Britain 1940
Year? German invasion of the Soviet Union 1941
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941
Year? D-Day (Allied invasion of Europe) 1944
Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1945
Name a WWII general who led the invasion of Normandy and later became a US President Dwight D. Eisenhower
Name the US WW II general and army Chief of Staff who after the war as Secretary of State came up with a plan to rebuild Europe George Marshall
Who was Douglas MacArthur? A controversial World War II general who led troops mostly in the Pacific.
Who was Winston Churchill? The British Prime Minister during WW II
Who was the Nazi dictator of Germany? Adolph Hitler
Who was the most brutal Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin
Why was the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 a surprise to Stalin? Two years earlier they had signed the Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact.
When and what was D-Day? June 6, 1944 Eisenhower commanded the allied invasion of Normandy, France
In ____, the US Dropped a nuclear bomb first on the Japanese city of ___, and three days later on the Japanese city of ____. Hiroshima, Nagasaki
Why did President Truman decide to drop nuclear bombs on Japan? He did not believe Japan would surrender easily without the bomb, and continued fighting would have a great cost in American lives.
Who was Hideki Tojo? A Japanese general who also became Prime Minister. His aggressive policies led Japan into WW II.
Who was Hirohito? Emperor of Japan who fearing his monarchy would be destroyed, did not prevent the military's aggressive policies.
Economic dislocations following World War I led unstable: political conditions
Worldwide depression in the 1930s provided opportunities for the rise of ___ in the Soviet Union, Germany, Italy, and Japan dictators
A communist dictatorship was established by ____ and continued by ____ in the Soviet Union Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin
The Treaty of Versailles worsened economic and political conditions in Europe and led to the rise of ___ regimes in Italy and Germany. totalitarian
Japan emerged as a world power after World War I and conducted: aggressive imperialistic policies in Asia.
Why did dictatorial governments emerge in Germany, Italy, Japan, and the USSR after World War I? Economic conditions led to unstable political conditions following WW I. The treaty of Versailles put an even greater economic burden on Germany.
Describe Stalin's policies in the USSR between the wars. Entrenchment of communism, Stalin's policies (five-year plans, collectivization of farms, state industrialization, secret police) Great Purge
Describe Germany during the interwar period - Inflation and depression, Democratic government weakened, Anti-Semitism, National Socialism (Nazism), German occupation of nearby countries
What is genocide? The systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group
Hitler believed in a ____ race master
What was Hitler's final solution? Extermination camps, gas chambers
Name several examples of genocide Hitler's final solution: Armenians by leaders of the Ottoman Empire; Peasants, government and military leaders, and members of the elite in the Soviet Union by Joseph Stalin; The educated, artists, technicians, former government officials by Pol Pot in Ca
An example of genocide - The educated, artists, technicians, former government officials, monks and minorities were killed by Pol Pot in Cambodia
An example of genocide - Tutsi minority by Hutu in - Rwanda (Africa)
An example of genocide - Muslims and Croats were killed by Bosnian Serbs in - former Yugoslavia
An example of genocide - Armenians were killed by leaders of the - Ottoman Empire
An example of genocide - Peasants, governments and military leaders, and members of the elite were killed by Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union
What were the outcomes of World War II? European powers' loss of empire; Establishment of two major powers in the world: US and USSR; War crimes trials; Division of Europe - Iron Curtain; Establishment of the UN; Marshall Plan; Formation of NATO and Warsaw Pact
One outcome of WW II was the establishment of two major powers in the world: The United States and the USSR
One outcome of WWII was the ___ ___, a division of Europe into Soviet and western spheres of influence. Iron Curtain
What was the Marshall Plan? Plan to rebuild Europe after WWII
What is NATO? North Atlantic Treaty Organization ( a military alliance of the western European democracies)
What was the Warsaw Pact? A military alliance of the Eastern European countries in the Soviet sphere of influence.
What happened to Germany after WW II? Democartic government installed in West Germany and West Berlin; Germany and Berlin divided amoung the four Allied powers; Emergency of West Germany as economic power in postwar Europe
After WW II, Germany and Berlin were divided among - four Allied powers - US< Britain, Russia, France
What happened to Japan after WW II? US occupied Japan under MacArthur's administration; Democracy and economic development; Elimination of Japanese offensive military capabilities; United States' guarantee of Japan's security; and Japan emerged as dominant economy in Asia.
Who administered the US occupation of Japan after WW II? MacArthur
Competition between the United States and the USSR laid the foundation for the Cold War
____ failed as an economic system in the Soviet Union and elsewhere. Communism
The Cold War began with the ____ Conference and the Soviet control of Eastern Europe. Yalta
The Cold War was characterized by: Democracy and the free enterprise system versus dictatorship and communism
What were some of the Soviet Satellite nations after WW II? Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania
What period of time saw the beginning of the Cold War? 1945 - 1948
What were some of the Cold War conflicts? NATO v. Warsaw Pace; Korean Conflict; Vietnam War; Berlin and significance of Berlin Wall; Cuban Missile Crisis; Nuclear weapons and the theory of deterrence
When did the Soviet Union collapse? 1989
What were the causes and consequences of the collapse of the Soviet Union? Soviet economic collapse; Nationalism in Warsaw Pact countries; Tearing down of Berlin Wall; Breakup of USSR; Expansion of NATO
After World War II, the United States pursued a policy of ____ against communism. containment
The Cold War led to armed conflict in: Korea and Vietnam
What is containment: Policy for preventing the expansion of communism
How did China split after the end of the Chinese civil war? Division of China into two nations at the end of the Chinese civil war; Chiang Kai-shek Nationalist China (island of Taiwan); Mao Tse-tung Communist China; Continuing conflict between the two Chinas
Who became the leader of Nationalist China on the island of Taiwan? Chiang Kai-shek
Who became the leader of Communist China on the Mainland? Mao Tse-tung
Describe the conflict in Vietnam. Role of French Imperialism; Leadership of Ho Chi Minh; Vietnam as a divided nation; Influence of policy of containment; The US and the Vietnam War; Vietnam as a reunited communist country today
Who was a leader of the Indian independence movement, and what tactics did he use? Mohandas Ghandi - civil disobedience and passive resistance
People in India wanted freedom from ___ rule. British
The charter of the United Nations guaranteed colonial populations the right to: self-determination
Independence movements in Africa challenged European: imperialism
The US president during WW I was: Woodrow Wilson
During WW I Germany was led by - Kaiser Wilhelm II
At first America declared neutrality and refused to enter the fighting in Europe. The US declared war on Germany after - attacks by German subs on American ships.
Russia withdrew from WW I the same year the US entered the war - 1917
WW I resulted in the end of several empires including the - Russian, Ottoman, German, and Austro-Hungarian empires
Colonies' participation in the World War I increased demands independence
What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles? Forced Germany to accept guilt for war and loss of territory and pay reparations; Limited the German military
What were the causes of the 1917 revolutions in Russia? Defeat in war with Japan in 1905; Landless peasantry; Incompetence of Tsar Nicholas II; Military defeats and high casualties in World War I
When Russia entered WW i, the country was ruled by a - Tsar
Before World War I, there were sharp divisions in Russia between the: nobility and peasants.
The Tsar did not resolve the grievances of workers and peasants. Harships of World War I led to: revolution and an unsuccessful provisional government.
A second revolution by the ____ created the communist state that ultimately became the USSR. Bolsheviks
____ ____ pushed the Russian economy into chaos, quickening the collapse of the czarist regime and leading to the Russian Revolution. World War I
The Russian Revolution occurred in tow phases. In the March Revolution, czar ___ was replaced by a ___ ___. Nicholas II, provisional government
Russia's November Revolution was led by ___ ___, who was leader of the ____ Party. Vladimir Lenin, Bolshevik
What was the League of Nations? International cooperative organization; Established to prevent future wars
Why did the League of Nations fail? United States not a member; Failure of League because it did not have power to enforce its decisions
Created by: kltnunley