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W History 2 1500 SOL

World History II SOL Review Around 1500 AD

The Modern World New intellectual and artistic ideas that developed during the Renaissance marked this beginning
Renaissance Classical influence in the arts, architecture and literature. It marked the beginnings of modern science and an increasingly secular society
Renaissance artists depicted the human form more realistically and subjects wre shown in realistic settings like landscapes.
Where was the Renaissance? It spread from the Italian city states in southern Europe to northern Europe.
Renaissance means "rebirth" or "birth" of the modern world. It lasted from 1350 to 1600. The height of the Renaissance was the 1500s.
Two Renaissance artists Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo
Renaissance playwright Shakespeare
Renaissance humanists Erasmus
What is humanism? The chief intellectual movement of the Renaissance. Emphasized secular (not relgiious) concerns and education.
What were the world's five major religions? Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism
Where was Judaism located? Concentrated in Europe and the Middle East
Where was Christianity located? Concentrated in Europe and teh Middle East.
Where was Islam located? Parts of Asia, Africa, and southern Europe.
Where was Hinduism located? India and part of Southeast Asia.
Where was Buddhism located? East and Southeast Asia.
What were some of the technological and scientific advancements made in China and exchanged along trade routes? Paper, compass, silk, and porcelain
What were some of the technological and scientific advancements made in India and the Middle East and exchanged along trade routes? Textiles and numeral systems
In what areas were scientific advancements made the exchanged along trade routes? Scientific transfer - Medicine, astronomy, and mathematics
For centuries, the Roman Catholic Church had little competition in religious thought and action. The resistance of the church to change led to: the Protestant Reformation
What were the problems and issues that provoked religious reforms in Western Christianity? It challenged the authority of the Church of Rome Merchant wealth - usury; German and English nobility disliked Italian domination; Great political power and wealth; Church corruption and sale of indulgences were widespread
The Reformation began as a rebellion against certain practices of Catholic Church, including the selling of indulgences. What is indulgences? A substitution for punishment for sin. People could essentially "buy their way into heaven" or so they thought.
What were the beliefs of Martin Luther? Lutheran - opposed sale of indulgences. Believed salvation would come by faith alone, Bible as the ultimate authority, all humans equal before God.
What were the Ninety-Five Theses? In 1517, Luther nailed his 95 Theses to a church door. They criticized the sale of indulgences and other church abuses.
What were the beliefs of John Calvin? Believes in predestination - the belief that God had determined in advance who would be "saved" and who would be "damned". Faith revealed by living a righteous life, work ethic. This religion spread through northern Europe.
What were the beliefs of Henry VIII? Dismissed the authority of the Pope in Rome. He broke with Rome: headed the national church in England; appropriated lands and wealth of the Roman catholic Church in England
Describe the Reformation in Germany Princes in Northern Germany converted to Protestantism, ending authority of the Pope in their states. The Hapsburg family and the authority of the Holy Roman Empire continued to support the Roman Catholic Church. The conflict resulted in devasting wars.
Describe the Reformation in England Anglican Church became a national church throughout he British Isles under Elizabeth I. The Reformation contributed to the rise of capitalism.
Describe the Reformation in France. Catholic monarchy granted Protestant Huguenots freedom of worship by the Edict of Nantes. Cardinal Richelieu changed the focus of the Thirty Years War from a religious to a political conflict.
Gutenberg's invention of the ____ ____ in 1450 was one of the most important events of the period. printing press
The printing press revolutionized the publishing industry by mass producing books. This caused ______ to spread. literacy
Describe the Catholic Counter Reformation Catholic Church mounted a series of reforms and reasserted its authority. Society of Jesus was founded to spread Catholic doctrine around the world. Inquisition was established to reforms Catholic doctrine.
What was the impact of the Reformation on Western civilization? At first the Reformation divided the countries of Europe on religious principles, leading to religious intolerance. But, gradually religious toleration emerged, along with democratic thought.
The Reformation led to growth of s______, i________, and r________ t______ secularism, individualism, and religious tolerance
What was the role of the printing press during the Reformation in the spread of new ideas? Promoted literacy and helped spread the ideas of the Reformation (the doctrines of Luther and Calvin) more quickly.
In 1500, the expanding economies of European states stimualted increased trade with markets in what continent? Asia
With the loss of _______ in 1453, European nations fronting the Atlantic sought new _____ routes for trade Constantinople, maritime (sea)
What were the factors contributing to the Eruopean discovery of lands in the Western Hemisphere? Demand for gold, spices, and antural resources in Europe. Support for diffusion of Christianity, Political and economic competition between European empires, Innovations in navigational arts, and Pioneering roles of Prince Henry the Navigator
Name some important explorers around 1500 AD Vasco da Gama (Portugal), Christopher Columbus, Hernando Cortex, Francisco Pizarro, Ferdinand Megallan (Spain), Francis Drake (England) and Jacques Cartier (France)
One motive for exploration was to spread the _____ religion Christian
One effect of the Spanish overseas expansion was the demise of these three Indian empires. Aztec, Maya, and Inca Empires
A legancy of Spanish expansion in Latin America is a ______ ______ system and ______ rule. rigid class system; dictatorial rule
In the Americans, the colonies imitated the culture and social patterns of their: parent country
The effect of European expansion in Africa was European ____ _____ along the coast. trading posts
European expansion in Africa led to trade in: slaves, gold and other products
European expansion in Asia led to: Colonization by small groups of merchants (India, the Indies, China) and Influence of trading companies (Portuguese, Dutch, British)
What does Columbian Exchange mean? describes the worldwide redistribution of plans, animals, and diseases that resulted from the initial contacts between Europeans and American Indians.
As the result of the Columbian Exchange, agricultural products such as ____, ____, and ____, from the Western Hemisphere changed European lifestyles. corn, potatoes, and tobacco
As the result of the Columbian Exchange, European ____ and ____ changed the lifestyles of American Indians horse and cattle
The most important result of the Columbian Exchange is the European ___ like ____ killed many American Indians. diseases like smallpox
Impact of the Columbian Exchange Shortage of labor to grow cash crops led to the use of African slaves and European plantation system in the Caribbean and the Americas - destroyed indigenous economics and damaged the environment
What was the triangular trade? The triangular trade linked Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Slaves, sugar, and rum were traded The European nations exported precious metals from the Americas.
What was the impact of precious metal exports from the Americas? Gold and silver (exported to Europe and Asia); Impact on indigenous empires of the Americas; and Impact on Spain and international trade
The _____ Empire emerged as a political and economic power following the conquest of Constantinople. Ottoman
The Ottomans brought under their rule - much of Muslim territory in Southwest Asia and North Africa
What was the original location of the Ottoman Empire? Asia Minor
To where did the Ottoman Empire expand Southwest Asia, Southeastern Europe, Balkan Peninsula, and North Africa
The capital of the Ottoman Empire at Constantinople was renamed Istanbul
During the Ottoman Empire, the ___ religion was a unifying force that accepted other religions. Islamic
The Ottoman Empire traded - coffee and ceramics
Descendants of the Mongols, the Muslim ____ rulers established an empire in northern _____. Mughal (Mogul) ; India
What were the contributions of Mughal rulers? Spread of Islam in to India; Art and architecture - Taj Mahal; Arrival of European trading outposts; and Influence of Indian textiles on British textile industry
Portugal, England, and the Netherlands competed for the Indian Ocean trade by establishing ____ ____ on the Indian subcontinent. Coastal ports
How did the Chinese attempt to limit the influence of European merchants? Creation of foreign enclaves to control trade and Imperial policy of controlling foreign influences and trade
There was an increasing European demand for theses Chinese goods - tea and porcelain
How was Japan ruled after 1500 AD? A powerless emperor - ruled by military leader (shogun)
Japan adopted a policy of ____ to limit foreign influences. isolation
An economic practice adopted by European colonial powers in an effort to become self-sufficient: mercantilism
Merchantilism was based on the theory that colonies existed for the benefit of - the mother country
During the Commercial Revolution, European maritime nations competed for - overseas markets, colonies, and resources
During the Commercial Revolution, a new economic system emerged. New money and banking systems were created. Economic practices such as mercantilism evolved. Colonial economies were limited by the economic needs of the mother country.
Created by: kltnunley