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Chp 2 & 3 Study

What were the revolutionary transformations brought by the Neolithic revolution The beginning of cultivation of particular plants and taming particular animals
what was the importance of intensification in the Neolithic age It meant getting more for less. they learned how to produce more food from smaller lands
what accounts for the emergence of agriculture after a countless millennia of human life without it The end of the ice age and moving of people around the world, climate warmer new plants and killed big animals, new tools, agriculture
What were the indictaions that the transition of a fully agriculture and domesticated new way of a life took place quickly in the fertile cresent variety of plants and animals that can be tamed, large increase in settlement, major innovations mud bricks and environmental deterioration
How did the agriculture revolution of Africa differ from the revolution in the fertile crescent / they domesticated their plants in scattered area , less productive agriculture
While sorghum was the first grain to be tamed in east Africa, what plants were imported from west Africa yam,oil, palm trees, okra, kola nut
Describe the middle east spread of agriculture plants were domesticated in small areas productive agricultutre more vaierty
describe the americans spread of agriculture domesticated in seprate locations, lack rich cereal grain no big animals only llama
describe the African spread of agriculture domesticated in scattered places , less productive agriculture
Describe the Bantu migration beginning in 3,000 BCE and its impact on Africa they moved east and south taking their culture and agriculture , they killed and drove away the palelothic people
Where was the agriculture sometimes resited and why Australia, west coast of north America, artic regions, SW Africa bevause some areas where unsitable for farming and lived in regions of abundance for hunting and gathering
Postive affects of the agriculture revolution increase in population, explosion of new technology innovation
Negative affects of agricultural revolution ? deterioration in health and less variety of food
What are some new technologies invented during the revolution vessels, weaving, textiles, metallurgy
what are the three societies in the agricultural revolution ? pastoral, agricultural village societies, and chiefdoms
Pastoral societies depend on the domestication of animals, know as herders,pastoralist, nomads, emerged from central asia,arabia peninsula,the sahara organized in kingship of tribes
Agricultural village societies depended on farming, men and women worked in certain positions organized in kingship or lineases ( incorporating a large group beyond the extended family
Cheifdoms organized politically , chiefs used force to compel obidence of subjects relied genorasity rituals status to persuade their followers
Neolithic revolution agriculture revolution changed hunting and gathering to farmng productivity
Domestication the taming of an animal or plants
Fertile Crescent region know as mesoptamia first to strat agricultural revolution
Metallurgy the working of gold to make jewelry, tools,wepons brought on by agriculture revolution
Animal Husbandry distinct form of food producing economy relying on the milk,meat and blood of animals
Pastoralist depend on domesticating animals
Kinship groups a family clan or group based on blood relationship
Stateless societies a society without a state
Cheifdoms inherited positions of power aand privilege introduced to more distinct element of inequality
diffusion the spreading of agriculture techniques without the movement of people
what plants and animals are found in the Fertile crescent Barley wheat lentils figs goats, sheep, cattle, pigs
what plants and animals are found in Africa sorghum, millet, yams, teff cattel
What plants and animals are found in Mesoamerica maize, squash turkey, llama
How were the new civilizations diffrents from the earlier agricultural villages pastoral societies and chiefdoms the didved the population into cities controlled by powerful states, diffrences in economic function, and divied the people by class, have pyramids, temples, places literature
Where and when did the first civilization emerge emerged around 3500 BCE to 3000 BCE in 3 places 1. Cradel- middle eastern civilization in many comepeting states, summer 2. nile river valley in NE Africa 3. central coat peru- desert region
what was unique about sumer wrote worlds earliest written language
what was unique about eygpt pharohs and pyramids, took shape as a united territory state
Whtat was unique about norte chico monumental structres, smaller cities economy based on fishing no writing lacked defense no war
what was unique about the indus valley no palaces , temples, graves kings or classes,has small republics ruled by preist
what was unique about china ? centralized state, tombs of rulers, human sacrifice, sun of heaven
what was unique about the olmecs along gulf of mexico, based on corn beans arose form cheifdoms created first written language in the Americas
what explations are given for the rise of civilizations the roots of the agriculture revolution, agriculture technology allowed to produce food for a large population, emerged from cheifdoms, irrigation projects
How does Robert carneiro approach the question of the rise of civilization he argued that a growing density of population producing more congested and competitive socities was a fundamental motor of change espically areas where rich, agriculture, land was limited by geography or competing socities
what was the role of citites in the early civilization political/administrative capitals, centers for production of art architecture literature rituals and ceremony market houses and palace of worship
In what ways was social inequality expressed in early civilizations inequalities in wealth status and power
In the rival mesoptamina cities what was the role of female slaves female slaves- worked in large scale semi-industrial waeving enerterprise male slaves- maintained irrigation canals and consttuct ziggurats serveants in the household
Described slavery in all of the First civilization varied from place to place, eygpt and indus had few slaves, mesoptamium highly millitaried greek Athens romans employed more slaves than Chinese or indian slaves were not labor children fred not all black
In what ways have historians tried to explain the origins of partriarchy the role of a new mre intensive form of agriculture involving the use of animals and women weremore often taking care of the children
Mesoptamia partriarchy various wrriten laws to enforce patriarchal familys that offered women protection with the authority of men married women vield prosatutes not veiled
Eygpt partriarchy gave women more oppertunaties men and women were legally equal, women can have land, slavesm sign wedding papers, sign for divorce royal women had political power no women veiled
What ere the sources of state authority in the first civilization 1) complexity of life in cities required some authroiteys to deal with irrigation systems, deal with conflicts, and to defend the territory
Mesopotamia political organized into independent city states ruked by a king most through urbanized area frequent warfare Sumerian city states caused people to flee to the walled citites for protection
Egypt political sevral early states and chiefdoms into a unified territory wind helped to sail through nile and have communication,trade and stability, lived in agricultural villages not urban, ruled by pharoh then local nobles
Mesopotamia environment grew up in river valleys the tigirs and Euphrates which were unpredictable agriculture caused deforestation, soil erosion decreas in crop yields saltinization of soil
Egypt Enviroment grew up dependent on the river valley the nile very predictable, pyramids, stable environment, dikes canals led to saltinization regulated nile flow
Mesoptamia culture viewed life in an ugly way because of harsh environment thought gods were bad and afterlife was worse than real life
Egypt culture cheerful outlook on life the rebirth of sun and of the river assured a great after life used pyramids to guide the royals to the journey in the land of the west
what were the reservations of civilization 1. implied superiorty 2. was a group of ideas in boundires
Created by: BB2424