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AP World History

Valhalla High School Bentley AP World Ch. 14

TermDefinitionSignificanceTime PeriodChapterRegion
Madrasas Institutions of education dedicated to providing elementary education and religious teachings. Helped bring values of the Quran to people living far from the birthplace of Islam. 570 C.E.- 1198 C.E. 14 Middle East/ Southwest Asia
Sufis Islamic missionaries and mystics that sought mystical bond with Allah. They greatly aided in the spread of Islam because of their popularity and their lack of concern for doctrine 570 C.E.- 1198 C.E. 14 Middle East/ Southwest Asia
Al-Ghazli An early Persian sufi who believed that only through devotion and guidance from the Quram could people undersand the power of Allah. Influenced early Mulsim philosophy. 570 C.E.- 1198 C.E. (Al-Ghazi [1058-1111]) 14 Middle East/ Southwest Asia
Sufi Missionaries Sufis that stressed devotion to Allah above the mastery of doctrine. Because of their popularity, they were able to gain converts in places where other religions had been established for years. 570 C.E.- 1198 C.E. 14 Middle East/ Southwest Asia
Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca in honor of Muhammad's return to Mecca in 632 C.E. An event that unites all followers of Islam. 570 C.E.- 1198 C.E. 14 Middle East/ Southwest Asia
Persian influence on Islam Persian influences that have affected the ideal image of kings and government. Persian influence also affected literature such as The Thousand and One Nights. Influenced the growth and development of early islamic society. 570 C.E.- 1198 C.E. 14 Middle East/ Southwest Asia
Indian influence on Islam India contributed mathamatics, science, and medicine to Islamic empires. India also provided a system of numbers that were later called "Araboc" numerals. Influenced Islamic teachings and the teachings of other societies that absorbed these ideas from the Muslim nations. 570 C.E.- 1198 C.E. 14 Middle East/ Southwest Asia
Greek influence on Islam Muslim philosophers and thinkers obsorbed the ideas of Aristotle and Greek mathematics, science, and medicine. The Greek influence affected Islamic learning and Islamic philosophy. 570 C.E. - 1198 C.E. 14 Middle East/ Southwest Asia
Ibn Rushd A Muslim philosopher who sought to create a purely rational understanding of the world. Ibn Rushd helped shape early Islamic philosophy and later European scholasticism. 570 C.E.- 1198 C.E. (Ibn Rushd [1126-1198]) 14 Middle East/ Southwest Asia
Arabian Peninsula A mostly desert covered peninsula located in south west Asia. With very little agriculture, only in the areas with well watered systems like Yamen in the south and a few others like Medina which had oasis was agriculture possible. Significant due to its location between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf which allowed for trade. Spread of Islam. 500 C.E. - 1000C.E. 14 southwest Asia between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf
Bedouin Nomadic group that inhabited the Arabian Peninsula. Kept herds of sheep, goats, and camels, and migrated around in search of water. Organized in family and clan groups. These nomadic groups provided trade and spread of ideas to neighboring regions. 500 C.E 14 Arabian Peninsula
Muhammad Allah's prophet who was born in 570 C.E into a family of merchants in Mecca. When both of his parents died when he was only six, he was raised by his Grandfather and Uncle. It was not until 610 C.E when Muhammad began to have visions sent to him by Allah. The prophet of Allah which promoted Islam in the Middle East. 570 C.E.-632 C.E. 14 Born in Mecca
The Qu'ran ("recitation") Islamic Holy book with the teaching of Muhammad as revelations from Allah. Serves as the definite authority for the Islamic religious doctrine and social organization N/A 14 Middle East
Hijra ("migration") Muhammad's migration from Mecca to Medina in 622 C.E starting point of the official Islamic calendar 622 C.E 14 from Mecca to Medina
Umma ("community of the faithful") Muhammad's way of organizing his followers into cohesive communities. ~610C.E.-~622 C.E 14 Mecca
The seal of the prophet Muhammad's name for himself as a prophet The final prophet through which Allah would reveal his message. ~ 610C.E.-632C.E. 14 Middle East
The Five Pillars of Islam The Foundation of Islamic faith. (profession of faith,prayer,fasting during the month of Ramadon,alms, and the pilgrimage to Mecca.) Constitute the framework that has tied the umma into a bonding community of faith. N/A 14 Middle East
Jihad "Struggle" It imposes spiritual and moral obligations on Muslims. Muslims must struggle against ignorance and unbelief. N/A 14 Middle East
Shari'a Islamic Holy Law, created from the Qu'ran and Muhammad's teachings. Offered guidelines on proper behavior, which would help ease social problems. after Muhammad's death, created by legal scholars. 14 Middle East
al-analus Islamic Spain claimed independence from Abbasid dynasty Abbasid era 14 middle east
sakk "check" able to draw credit in one city and cash it in another n/a 14 middle east
caravan using camels as a form of transportation able to cross deserts easierly n/a 14 middle east
dar al-Islam "house of Islam" following your faimly traditions n/a 14 middle east
The Caliph Caliph means "deputy",it was the term used for the islamic leaders after the death of Muhammad the Caliph was the ruler of Islam after the death of Muhammad. The Caliph was the military commander, religious leader, as well as cheif judge. 632C.E (after Muhammads death) 14 Middle East
The Abbasid Dynasty Islamic dynasty founded after the fall of the Umayyad by Abu al-Abbas and reached its peak under the rule of Harun al-Rashid the Abbasid Dynasty was a cosmopolitan dynasty but it was not a counquering dynasty like the Umayyad Dyansty. the Abbasid Dynasty was responsible for stoping the expansion of the Tang dynasty and for the spread of Islam amung the turkish peoples. 750C.E-1258C.E 14 Middle East
new crops staple crops, esp. cotton led to a richer and more varied diet n/a 14 middle east
5 pillars of faith (1) profession of faith, (2) prayer, (3) fasting during Ramadan, (4) alms, and (5) pilgrimage, or hajj. foundation of Islam n/a 14 middle east
ka'ba main shrine in Mecca was to reach this place in the haji n/a 14 middle east
veiling of women as a sign of modesty, women covered their faces and went outside only with a company to discourage male attention was a symbol of male authority 13th century B.C.E. 14 middle east
ulama Islamic officials they shaped the public to the Quran and sharia n/a 14 middle east
sunni "traditionalist" most popular branch of Islam, main belief is that only a direct desendent of Muhammad can lead their people n/a 14 middle east