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Nissing Chem Ch1

Chemistry Ch1: Chemistry and Measurement

QuestionAnswer
Chemistry is defined as the science of... The composition, structure, and changes undergone by materials
Any kind of matter, whether a solid, liquid, gas, mixture, pure substance, etc, is referred to as... material
The observation of natural phenomena must be controlled so that these two things are possible... 1) results can be duplicated 2) rational conclusions can be made
This explanation of a regularity in nature is tentative Hypothesis
This explanation of a regularity in nature is concise and mathematical Law
This explanation of a regularity in nature has been tested theory
Is the scientific method a general process or a specific program? General process
This value refers to the quantity of matter in a material mass
all materials are made up of this. Matter
Lavoisier's law of conservation of mass states that during a chemical change... the total mass remains constant. ie, mass cannot be created or destroyed.
What is the difference between mass and weight? Weight includes the force of gravity and therefore changes based on the amount of gravity applied. Mass is the same wherever the object is measured.
What are the two different principal ways to classify matter? By physical state (solid/liquid/gas) or by chemical constitution (element/compound/mixture)
Rigidity is the main identifying characteristic of what phase(s) of matter? Solids
Which phas(es) of matter can be described as fluid? Liquids and gasses
Compressibility and expansibility are the main identifying characteristics of what phase(s) of matter? Liquids
Phase(s) of matter that is relatively incompressible with fixed shape and volume Solid
Phase(s) of matter that is relatively incompressible with fixed volume but no fixed shape Liquid
Phase(s) of matter that is relatively compressible without fixed size or shape Gas
matter that normally exists as a liquid or a solid but is in gaseous state is often called... vapor
What are the three common states of matter? Solid, Liquid, Gas
When a material changes form but not chemical identity, this is what kind of change? Physical change
When a material has a transformation from one kind of matter into one or more new kinds of matter, this change is a... Chemical change
Chemical or Physical change: Dissolving salt into water Physical change
Chemical or Physical change: Iron rusting Chemical change
Chemical or Physical change: Burning toast Chemical change
Chemical or Physical change: melting ice Physical change
Chemical or Physical change: distillation Physical change
A characteristic that can be observed without changing the material's chemical identity is what kind of property? Physical property
A characteristic that can only be observed by chemically changing a material is what kind of property? Chemical property
Chemical or Physical property: ability to react with oxygen Chemical property
Chemical or Physical property: melting point Physical property
Chemical or Physical property: density Physical property
Chemical or Physical property: color Physical property
Matter that cannot be separated by physical processes substance
Matter that can be separated by physical processes mixture
Pure substances that can't be decomposed by any chemical reaction into simpler substances element
Substances composed of two or more chemically combined elements Compound
This law states that a pure compound (like pure water) always contains definite, or constant, proportions of the elements by mass (one gram of water will always have .889g O and .112g H) Law of definite proportions
You can separate a mixture by what processes physical, such as distillation
a type of mixture that is uniform throughout a given sample, like sugar water homogenous or solution
a type of mixture that consists of physically distinct parts with different properties, like sugar and salt heterogenous
What type of mixture is air, homogenous or heterogenous homogenous. Although any two samples of air may have different proportions, among one given sample it will be uniform
This term can refer to the different compounds in a heterogenous mixture, or to the same compounds in different states like ice in water. phase
What are the two types of substances? elements and compounds
What are the two types of mixtures? Homogenous and Heterogenous
What are the two types of material? substances and mixtures
Still confused on the terminology? Click on the target below for a visual that may help. Right-click it and choose "open in new tab" so you don't lose your place in the cards. Seriously. Check out the target. Click "start test" on the left side of the screen if you think you got this.
A fixed standard accompanies any measurement. What is this fixed standard called. unit
The closeness of a set of values you get from measuring the same thing is called... precision
The closeness of a single measurement to its true value is called... accuracy
If you measure a table 5 times and get the lengths 1.4m, 1.42m, 1.4m, 1.38m, 1.39m, but the table is actually 1.25m, then are your measurements precise or accurate? They are precise because they are all similar to eachother
A shooter has his weapon zeroed but a loose shot groop. Will his shots be accurate or precise? They should be accurate, because they're generally close to the right spot. They won't be precise, because they're not close to eachother.
An expert shooter fires 9 rounds with a weapon that hasn't been zeroed. Will his target show accuracy or precision? They're precise because they're close to eachother. They're not accurate because they're not near the target.
This type of number gives digits in a measured number that include certain digits, plus one digit with some uncertainty Significant Figures
This type of number gives a value as the product of a number between 1 and 10, and ten to some exponential value Scientific Notation
This type of number arises when you count items or define a unit. Exact number
This type of number is considered to have infinite significant numbers as "0" to the right of the terminal integer value Exact number. ie, 12 eggs = 12.0 or 12.000 eggs, and shouldn't limit digits in calculations
This type of number is an expression of a value that contains only the significant digits in a calculation, with the last digit adjusted. Rounded
If the right-most digit to be eliminated is between 0 and 4, how do you round? down
If the right-most digit to be eliminated is between 5 and 9, how do you round? up
At what point in a multi-step calculation should you round? The very end
How many significan figures: 0.00682 3. Leading zeros are not significant
How many significan figures: 1.072 4. embedded zeros are not significant
How many significan figures: 300 1. Trailing zeros are not significant UNLESS there is a decimal point OR they are exact
How many significan figures: 420. 3. Trailing zeros are significant when there is a decimal point
How many significan figures: 420.0 4. Trailing zeros are significant when there is a decimal point. This means 420 is certain, the final 0 is the digit with some uncertainty
15.26 + 2.389 = 17.629 Give this answer rounded to the correct significant figure 17.63 Adding and subtracting rule: round to the least number of decimal places. 15.26 had 2 decimal places, so the answer should be rounded to 2 decimal places.
152.040 - 20.179 = 131.861 Give this answer rounded to the correct significant figure 131.86 The least number of decimal places is 2, because the terminal zero in 152.040 is not significant.
2700 x 1.3 = 3510 Give this answer rounded to the correct significant figure 3500 Multiplying and dividing rule: round to the least number of significant figures. Both products in this question only had 2 significant figures.
2 / 9 = 0.22222222.... Give this answer rounded to the correct significant figure 0.2 Both products in the question had only one significant figure. In this answer, only the 2 is a significant figure.
0.4 * 2.4 = 0.96 Give this answer rounded to the correct significant figure 1 the first product (0.4) has only one significant figure.
Measurable values that might change in an experiment and must be controlled to duplicate an experiment Variables
What kind of reasoning begins with observation that leads to a hypothesis? Inductive.
What kind of reasoning uses a specific example to create a general statement? Inductive
What kind of reasoning that starts with a general rule or set of rules and yields specific results? Deductive
What kind of reasoning uses general ideas to create a specific statement? Deductive
If I fish in a lake and pull out only trout, I might therefore believe there is only trout in the lake. What kind of reasoning? Inductive. Based on what I see, I think EVERYTHING is that way.
I know there is only trout in a lake. Therefore, if I catch fish from the lake, I can be sure it's trout. What kind of reasoning? Deductive. Based on a broad/general statement, a specific conclusion is met.
Chemical or physical? A change in the form of matter but not in its chemical identity Physical change
Chemical or physical? Dissolving Physical change
Chemical or physical? Burning Chemical change
Chemical or physical? A change in which one or more kinds of matter are transformed into a new kind of matter or several new kinds of matter Chemical change
Chemical or physical? A characteristic that can be observed for a material without changing its chemical identity Physical property
Chemical or physical? Ability to react with chlorine Chemical property
Chemical or physical? Location of electrons in valence shell as it relates to that atom’s ability to bind with another atom Chemical property
Chemical or physical? Oxidation Chemical property (loss of electron)
Chemical or physical? Solubility Physical property
This term refers to a particular choice set of metric units SI, or International System of units
What are the SI base units for length, mass, time, and temperature? Length=meter(m), Mass=kilogram(kg), Time=second(s), Temp=kelvin(K)
How do you turn Celsius into kelvins? C + 273.15 = K
How do you turn Farenheit into Celsius? (F-32)(5/9) = C
What is the metric unit conversion for one Liter? mililiter? 1L = 1 dm(^3) 1mL = 1 cm(^3)
What is density? mass per unit volume, m/V
In a conversion factor, what is the relationship between the numerator and the denominator? They are equal to one another but have different units
Created by: jenissing