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AP World History

Valhalla High School Bentley AP World Ch. 30

TermDefinitionSignificanceTime PeriodChapterRegion
Crystal Palace a magnificent structure made of glass and iron. It enclosed trees, gardens, fountains, and manufactured goods from around the world. It allowed people from all over the world to view all of the industrial innovations from all over. It displayed the achievements of the industrial society under one roof. 1851 30 Europe-London
The Demographic Transition The shifting patterns of fertility and mortality. The Demographic Transition of the 19th sent. marked a major point in history when fertility began to decline. Mortality rates also began to fall fast. Population overall increased. Nineteenth Century. 30 Europe and the Americas
Child Labor Children in industrial societies were forced to work away from families for many hourse with few breaks. Harsh conditions and long hours were forced apon the children. they were often beaten to kepp working. Due to chilld labor however education became madatory for children in most areas. mid 1800s 30 Britain, Americas and other industrialized societies.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels German theorists who scorned utopian socialists as unrealistic. Believed the social problems were due to socialist economy. Divided the population into capitalists and proletaraits. They Believed the power was in the wroking class, proleteraits, and that a revolution would be led by them. They challenged and critcized many goverment issues. Nineteenth Century 30 Germany
The Communist Manifesto Document written by Marx and Engels that says success of capitailism would lead to a communist revolution. The power was in the working class. Their ideas dominated European and international socialism throughout nineteenth century 1848 30 Europe
Socialism refers to the tought of social critics Charles Fourier and Robert Owen. They worked to est. ideal communites. Stressed eqaulity and education for all. Led to the establishment of experimental communites in the US and Romania. Economic and political probelems caused them to crumlbe. first appeared around 1830 30 Europe and the Americas
Trade Unions organized groups of industrail workers. Trade unions gradually improved the lives of working people and decreased the chances of a proletariat revolt. Nineeteenth Century 30 Industrial societies.
Industrialization the process that transformed handi-craft centered economies into economies distinguished by industry and machine manufacture Industrialization introduced machinery which allowed for faster,cheaper production also providing more jobs. First introduced to Europe, industrialization made them the leading economy in the world. 1700's 30 Europe(Great Britain, Western Europe, Yangzi Delta, and Japan)
Samuel Crompton inventor of the "mule" This machine was powered by steam which was more efficeint and less expensive than coal or wood. Also the machine was able to produce one-hundred times more thread than by hand 1785 30 Great Britain
Luddites English handi-craft workers against the industrial revolution The Luddites rebelled against industrialization by destroying textile machines. Their actions influenced rebellions of other unhappy workers disrupted by industrialization. 1811-1816 30 Europe
Corporation private buisnesses owned by a large number of people and financed through the purchasing of stocks. Corporations enhanced the efficientness of Global Trade and allowed for monopolies, trusts, and cartels. 1700/1800's 30 Europe
Vertical Organization A form of monopoly (ex. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Co.) Allowed for more efficient production. 1700's/1800's 30 Europe
Horizontal Organization A form of monopoly that focused on absorbing competitors, fixing prices, regulating prodictuctions, and dividing up markets. Organized Global trade and established a reliable economy. 1700's/1800's 30 Europe
Eli Whittney invented machines of mass production The mass prodcution of standardized articles was more efficient and allowed for faster production resulting in more profit. 1800's 30 Europe
Industrialization in Russia Russia's tsarist gov't promoted industrialization promoted industrialization by encouraging the construction of railroads to link the vast empire. Under the guidance of Sergei Witte, Russia developed numerous globally competitive industries. By 1900, Russia produced half of the world's oil and also had massive industries in steel, coal, iron, and weapons. 1870-1900 30 Russia
Trans-Siberian Line A Russian railroad that linked Moscow with the port of Vladivostock on the Pacific Ocean, stretching more than 5,600 miles. Railroads drew the vast regions of the Russian empire together, , stimulated the production of coal, iron, and steel industries, and enabled Russia to link western Europe and east Asia. Constructed between 1891 and 1904 30 Russia
Count Sergei Witte He was a Russian finance minister who oversaw the construction of the Trans-Siberian line, reformed commercial law, protected new industries, supported steamships and nautical engineering, brought foreign investers to Russia, and established savings banks Russia experienced explosive industrial growth under his guidance. 1892-1903 30 Russia
Industrialization in Japan The Japanese government hired thousands of foreign experts to instruct Japanese workers and managers in the techniques of modern industry, and thouroughly modernized the nation. By 1900, as a result of active government encouragement and the organization of large-scale interprises, Japan was the most industrialized land in Asia. 1870-1900 30 Japan
Zaibatsu In Japan, Zaibatsu, which means "wealthy cliques" were industrial empires formed when numerous bussinesses and companies were sold to a single private entrepreneur. They were similar to trusts and cartels but were usually organized around a single family. Zaibatsu usually controlled companies in several industries; these large scale enterprises usually operated efficiantly, and contributed greatly to the industrialization of Japan. 1870-1900's 30 Japan
Demands for Raw Materials Industrial societies needed raw materials for their products; they often searched the globe for the cheapest raw materials to supply their factories. For the countries that supplied materiels, the income gained from the export of raw goods paved the way for economic developement in countries that were not yet industrialized. 1800's-1900's 30 Worldwide
Specialization in Production When society was industrialized, rwa materiels were transported to urdan industrial centers, where goods were often produced systematically in factories where each worker had a specific, repetitive task. This process allowed cheap and quick mass production of goods; it led to the growth of large cities and brought wealth to previously poor countries that were selling raw materials. Late 1700's-1900's 30 Worldwide
Utopian Socialists Individuals who invisioned societies held together by love and a sense of community rather than by government force; they advocated citizen's rights and education. Prominent amoung these individuals were Charles Fourier and Robert Owen. Their ideas spread widely, and experimental utopian socialist communities were established throughout the world; economic and political problems soon forced most of them to collapse, though some were successful. Scorned as unrealistic by Marx and Engels. 1800-1850 30 Began in Europe, spread worldwide
Women's Roles in Industrial Society In industrial society, the workplace was generally a factory, so married women were unable to work unless they left their homes and chlidren in someone else's care, so by the late 1800's, women were not expected to go to work but to stay home. Women were expected to raise children, care for their husbands, and manage the home. In her book, Mrs. John Sandford stated that "there is something unfeminine about independence" and that a woman should rely on men. 1800's and 1900's 30 Mostly Europe
Industrial Social Classes Social class became focused on industry: Industry bussinesspeople became wealthy and powerful, small bussiness owners, managers, and skilled employees became the new middle class, and the working class became laborers who toiled in factories or mines. Wealthy and middle classes benifitted greatly from industry, but the working class endured poor wages, long hours, and terrible working conditions. 1800's-1900's 30 Worldwide
Created by: tkhChapter30