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M6 13-005

Exam 18: Basic Concepts of mental Health

Mental Health One's ability to cope with and adjust to recurrent stresses of everyday living
Mentally healthy individual's characteristics Can enjoy life activities. Adapts successfully to changes. Sets realistic goals. Solves problems. Have satisfying working relationships. Maintains interpersonal relationships with friends and family.
Mental Illness A pattern of behavior that is conspicuous, noticeable, threatening and disruptive of relationships or deviates significantly from behavior that is considered socially and culturally acceptable.
Mental Illness is a manifestation of dysfunction (behavioral, psychological and biological).
Characteristics of Mental Illness Poor self-concept. Feeling of inadequacy. Dependent behavior. Pessimism. Poor judgment. Inability to cope. Irresponsibility. Inability to accept responsibility for actions. -to recognize limitations. -to perceive reality. Maladaptive behavior.
Basic factors affecting mental health Inherited characteristics. Childhood nurturing. Life’s circumstances. May be positive or negative influences which determine response to change.
Stress A nonspecific response of the body to any demand made on it.
Stressor situation or event that produces stress
Factors influencing a person’s response to change, resulting in stress, perhaps distress, depend on How a person views the stressor. Number of stressors handled at one time. Previous experience with situation. Magnitude of change the event represents.
Positive influences regarding individuals’ response to daily stressors Adequate coping ability. Mother-child bonding at birth. Success in school. Good health. Financial security.
Negative influences regarding individuals’ response to daily stressors Cognitive impairment Schizophrenia Extreme sibling rivalry Parental rejection Deprivation of maternal love Poor physical health Poverty Broken/failed relationship
Factors affecting mental health in U.S. Location and access to mental health care. Changing family structure. Mobile and relocation stresses. Stepfamilies. Same gender families. Women under ↑ pressure. Living longer.
Risk factors influencing mental health Genetic Biologic Environmental Cultural Occupational
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and insulin shock therapy 1930's. Developed and used to treat schizophrenia. Frontal lobotomy was used to eliminate violent behaviors
the National Health Act and the establishment of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) 1940's. The NIMH established research funding for the cause, treatment and prevention of mental illnesses.
Introduction of psychotherapeutic drugs and de-institutionalization 1950's.
Major tranquilizers 1954. Thorazine and Serpsil
Minor tranquilizers 1956: Imipramine
De-institutionalization : Release of institutional psychiatric patients to be treated in the community setting.
1960’s to 1970’s Community treatment aimed at returning the mentally ill to the home environment and provide a support system within the community to facilitate treatment
Goal of community treatment to return the individual to the home environment as soon as possible
Why provide a support system within the community? to facilitate treatment and bring about functioning as near normal as possible
Who established the President’s Commission on Mental health in 1978. What did it do? President Jimmy Carter. This commission assessed mental healthcare needs of the nation and made recommendations of actions for the government to take.
This was passed in 1980. The Mental Health Care System Act
1980's. What act was created? And why? Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) of 1981 ↓ funding for the mental health system. Many mentally ill patients from state institutions were put out in the streets where they were not able to find work and their families could not care for them.
Health care providers put mental health concepts and principles into practice in a variety of settings to include 21st Century
Mental Health Continuum: Mental health is on one side of the continuum. Midpoint on the continuum represents normal mental health. Mental illness is on the other side of the continuum.
Mental health is on one side of the continuum Adaptive. (b) Includes an assertive communication style, acceptance of strengths and weaknesses and available energy to deal with life’s situations.
Midpoint on the continuum represents normal mental health Lack of insight. Adequate coping skills, problem-solving ability and satisfactory responses or adjustments to life changes with some growth or possibly regression.
The point at which a person is deemed to be mentally ill is determined by the behavior the person exhibits and the context in which the behavior occurs
Mental illness results from inability to cope with a situation that is overwhelming and can be destructive.
The maladaptive behavior is often part of a response to acute anxiety
To determine placement on the continuum, it is necessary to assess several components of mental health: Positive self-concept Awareness of responsibility for one’s own behavior and consequences Adaptability to change Effective communication Awareness and acceptance of emotions and their expression Effective prosolving
Defense mechanisms Personality. Self (four Parts). Self Concept. How people see themselves. Disturbances.
Personality Relatively consistent sort of attitudes/behaviors unique to an individual
Four parts of the self Personal identity. Body image. Role performance. Self-esteem is the assessment made about personal worth.
Self concept Frame of reference a person uses for all they know and experience
Defense Mechanisms Used to protect the ego.
Use of Defense Mechanism Protect self in stressful situations. Useful in mild to moderate anxiety. Unconscious reaction. If used to extreme, defense mechanisms can distort reality and create problems with relationships (maladaptive instead of adaptive).
Types of defense mechanisms Compensation. Conversion. Denial. Displacement. Dissociation. Identification. Introjection. Projection. Rationalization. Reaction formation. Regression. Repression. Sublimation. Suppression.
Compensation: An individual makes up for a “deficiency” in one area by excelling in another area. Example: A person may compensate for blindness by perfecting other senses
Conversion Emotional conflicts are turned into a physical symptom, which provides the individual with some sort of benefit (secondary gain). Example: The individual who witnesses a murder then experiences blindness with no organic cause
Denial Reality is denied, it does not exist. Example: The patient who suffered a severe myocardial infarction is found by the nurse on the floor doing sit-ups and push-ups
Displacement Emotions are expressed toward someone or something other than the actual source of the emotion. Example: The person has an argument with his employer and comes home and yells at his family
Dissociation Separation and detachment of emotional significance and affect from an idea or a situation. Example: The person who has been traumatically victimized retells her situation, while smiling and joking about it
Identification Individual incorporates a characteristic through an individual or a group but does not give up personal identity. Example: A teenager who dresses like a favorite rock singer
Introjection A quality or attribute of another is internalized and becomes part of an individual. Example: The child who follows her parent’s instructions when the parents are not present
Projection Attributing to other characteristics that the person does not want to admit to possessing and blaming shortcomings on someone else.
Rationalization The person denies actual thoughts and justifies actions by giving untrue, but seemingly more acceptable, reasons for the behavior. Example: A person may forget a doctor’s appointment then say he does not want to see an incompetent practitioner
Reaction Formation The conscious behavior is completely opposite to the unconscious process. Example: A person who is excessively polite to an individual who is disliked
Regression behavior, thoughts, or feelings used at an earlier stage of development are exhibited. Example: An 8-year-old who reverts to bed-wetting and thumb-sucking while hospitalized
Repression The unconscious process of barring from conscious thought, painful and disagreeable thoughts, experiences and/or impulses. Example: A patient who was incontinent after surgery represses the embarrassment and totally suppresses the event
Sublimation The discharge of sexual or aggressive energy and impulses in a socially acceptable way. Example: The teenager who engages in many competitive sports
Suppression A conscious exclusion of painful thoughts, experiences, or impulses. Example: A student who fails to keep an appointment for academic counseling
Created by: jtzuetrong