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Microbio: Exotoxins

USMLE Step 1

BugMode of Action
Clostridium tetani blocks the release of the inhibitory NTs glycine & GABA in interneurons of the spinal cord; causes 'lockjaw', risus sardonicus, opisthotonos & tetanic paralysis of respiratory muscles
Clostridium botulinum blocks the release of ACh at NMJs; causes antiCh sxs, CNS paralysis (flaccid muscles), constipation; spores found in canned food, honey causes floppy baby, most potent exotoxin
Corynebacterium diphtheria inactivates EF-2 by ADP ribosylation which - protein synthesis; causes pharyngitis & 'pseudomembrane' in throat, then binds to heart & neural tissue, myocarditis w/ arrhythmias or circulatory collapse, paralysis of pharyngeal muscles & peripheral neuritis
Staphylococcus aureus' alpha toxin creates holes in cell membrane, allowing easy transit of substances into and out of the cell to yield eventual cell death, causes marked necrosis of skin and hemolysis
Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin is a lecithinase; causes gas gangrene; get double zone of hemolysis on bld agar
Staphylococcus aureus (Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin) superantigen that binds to MHC-2 protein (antigen-presenting cells) & T-cell receptor, inducing IL-1 & IL-2 synthesis in TSS; also causes food poisoning, induces cytokines like IL-1, causes fever, rash, desquamation, diarrhea, hypoTN then shock
Vibrio cholerae binds gangliosides (glycolipids line outer layer of plasma membranes) in intestinal cell; + Gs protein -> + adenylate cyclase -> overprod of cAMP -> secretion of Cl ions & H2O -> massive watery diarrhea w/o WBCs, voluminous rice-water stool
Bordetella pertussis + adenylate cyclase by ADP ribosylation; causes whooping cough; - chemokine receptor, causing lymphocytosis, also - ciliary movement by binding onto respiratory tract epithelial cells and lymphocytes = copious mucus
Created by: jerrica_08