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Unit 1-2

Geographic tools

The science of making maps. cartography
The shortest distance between any two points on the Earth. great circle routes
How cartographers turn the round Earth into a flat map. map projection
A map that shows the Earth centered in such a way that a straight line coming from the center to any other point represents the shortest distance. planar projection
Why all maps are to some degree inaccurate. distortion
A map that is based on the projection of the globe onto a cylinder. cylindrical projection
A map that is comes from projecting a part of the globe onto a cone shape. conic projection
A map that shows the true size and shape of Earth's landmasses but distorts distances. Interrupted projection
Common map projection that greatly distorts size and distances of areas further from the Equator. Mercator projection
Also known as parallels. latitude
Also known as meridians. Longitude
Lines that run east and west parallels
Lines that run north and south. meridians
Line that runs down the center of most world maps. Prime Meridian
One-half of the Earth. hemisphere
A way to measure distance on a map. scale
Maps that show large area but little detail. Small-scale maps
Maps that show small areas with a lot of detail. Large-scale maps
Maps that emphasize natural features such as lakes, rivers, landforms, etc. physical maps
Maps that emphasize human-made features such as countries, cities, etc. political maps
Maps created to show a specific kind of information. thematic maps
maps that use dots to show the distribution of a particular phenomenon. dot maps
Maps that use lines to connect points of equal value. isoline maps
Maps that use color to show number values of any given phenomenon within a predefined area (counties, states, countries, etc.) choropleth maps
Maps that use arrows to show movement over time. flow-line maps
Maps that use circles of varying sizes to the number of a particular phenomenon within an area. graduated circle maps
The network of satellites and receivers that pinpoint users' exact locations on the surface of the Earth. GPS
Computer programs that store and organize data, create maps, and predict future trends based on past data. GIS
Any tool that gathers data from a point distant from the area being studied. Includes satellite images, radar, sonar, etc. remote sensing
Created by: rowej78
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