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M6 13-005

Exam 16: Intro to Musculoskeletal System

The Human skeleton is composed of _____ Bones 206
Functions of the musculoskeletal system include Support, Protection, Movement, Mineral Storage, Hematopoiesis (Blood cell formation).
Skeletal SUPPORT the skeleton provides the body framework that supports internal tissues and organs.
Skeletal PROTECTION the skeleton forms a firm, cage-like structure that protects many internal organs.
Skeletal MOVEMENT skeletal muscles are attached to the bone, the bone provides leverage for movement.
Skeletal MINERAL STORAGE the bones serve as a storage area for various mineral particularly calcium and phosphorus. When the body’s intake of these minerals are low, the bones release them.
Skeletal HEMATOPOIESIS blood cell formation that takes place in the bone marrow
Structures of the musculoskeletal system include bones, joints, and muscles
Bones are classified based on shape
long bones found in extremities
Short bones found in the hand
Flat bones found in the skull and sternum
Irregular Bones found in the vertebrae (backbone)
What 2 sections can the skeletal system be broken into? The Axial Skeletal System. The Appendicular System.
What 2 important function do joints perform? 1. hold together bones to form skeleton. 2. Allow movement and flexibility of the skeleton.
Points of contact between bones are called joints
what are the 3 types of joints? Synarthrosis: No movement. Amphoarthrosis: Slight movement. Diarthrosis: Free Movement.
Bones and joints provide the framework for the body, but ____ are necessary for movement. Muscles
What 3 vital functions do muscles perform? 1. Motion. 2. Maintenance of posture. 3. Production of heat (Contraction assist venous blood and lymph back to the right side of the heart).
Describe the structure of the muscle. It is composed of hundreds of muscle fibers. Each muscle fiber is surrounded by a connective tissue called EPIMYSIUM.
What are the 7 P's? Pulselessness. Paresthesia. Paralysis. Polar temperature. Pallor. Puffiness (edema). Pain.
in addition to the 7 P's, it is also important to assess your Pt's ability to... Stand, move, perform, ADLs, any weakness and problems with their gait.
Musculoskeletal Diagnostic Tests X-ray. Myelogram. MRI. CT. Bone Scan. Endoscopic Exam. Aspiration. Electromyogram.
X-Ray used to determine presence of fluid, joint irregularity, or fractures.
Myelogram the injection of a radiopaque dye into the subarachnoid space at the lumbar spine to detect the presence of herniated disks.
MRI Assists in diagnosing abnormalities of the bones, joints, and surrounding soft tissue structures. Uses magnetism and radio waves to make images of cross-sections of the body.
CT body sections can be examined from many different angles using a CT scanner that produces a narrow x-ray beam to create a 3-D picture of the structure
Bone Scan detects metastatic and inflammatory bone disease (osteomyelitis). This test involves the intravenous administration of nuclides 2-3 hours before the test is scheduled.
Endoscopic Exam a lighted tube is used to visualize inside a body cavity; in the case of MS, arthroscopic exam allows for direct visualization of a joint. *NOTE* This is usually a surgical procedure.
Aspiration done to obtain a specimen of body fluid; uses local anesthesia and sterile technique.
Electromyogram a procedure that involves the insertion of needle electrodes into the skeletal muscle so that electrical activity can be recorded.
Lab Tests for Musculoskeletal Disorders Calcium. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR). Lupus Erythematosus. Rheumatiod Factor. Uric Acid.
Calcium Values Normal: 9-10.5 mg/dl. ↑ with tumor of bone, renal failure, Vitamin D deficiency, etc.
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) Values Males: up to 15 mm/hr. Females: up to 20 mm/hr. Indicates presence of inflammation as seen in rheumatoid arthritis.
Lupus Erythematosus values Normal: No LE seen. Presence may mean Lupus Erythematosus 7 Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Rheumatoid Factor Values <60 Units/ml. Lupus erythematosus & rheumatoid arthritis.
Uric Acid Values Normal vales: Males 2.1-8.5 mg/dl. Females 2.0-6.6 mg/dl. Increases with Pts with gout, Kidney Failure, Alcoholism, and Leukemia.
Created by: jtzuetrong