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blood vessel 6-11

What is the Tunica intima? The inner layer of the blood vessel, enothelium
What is the Tunica media? Smooth muscle layer, innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers
What is the Tunica externa? Outer layer, in large arteries and veins contains vaso vasorum (blood vessels that feed the arterial or venous wall)
What are 4 features of arteries? 1. Carry oxygenated blood away from the heart 2. Thicker smooth muscle layer than veins 3. More elastic than veins 4. Smaller lumen than veins
What are 3 features of arterioles? 1. Deliver blood to capillaries 2. Have greater influence on BP than arteries 3. Precapillary sphincters
What are precapillary sphincters? Rings of smooth muscle at the point where capillaries branch off arterioles.
What are precapillary sphincters involved in? Auto-regulation- an automatic adjustment of blood flow to meet metabolic demands --They constrict to decrease blood flow through a capillary, relax to increase blood flow through capillary
What are 4 features of capillaries? 1. Microscopic, in close contact with every cell in body 2. Exchange of gases, nutrients, and wastes occurs here 3. Single endothelial cell thin 4. Permability depends on how tight or loose the cell junctions are
What are continuous cappilaries? Tight cell junctuons- limited permability, slow rate of diffusion Skin, muscles, lungs, CNS
What are fenestrated capillaries? Leaky intracellular jucitions-- 10x more than continuous Large amounts of fluid and metabolites eneter of leave these caps Endocrine glands, intestinal villi, renal glomeruli
What are discontinuous capillaries? Wide gaps between cells-- allow movement of proteins and blood cells Liver, bone marrow, spleen
What are veins? Carry deoxygenated blood from body to heart, except pulmonary veins
What are venules? Formed by the union of several capillaries
what are 3 characteristics of veins? 1. Formed by the union of several venules 2. Thinner than arteries 3. Endothelial layer folds inward to form valves-- prevent backflow
What is the portal vein? Vein that carries blood from one capillary network to another
Which blood vessels have the most influence on BP? Arterioles
What is the effect of sympathetic stimulation on blood vessel walls? Increase in sympathetic stimulation = vasoconstriction = increase in BP Decrease in sympathetic stimulation = vasodilation = decrease in BP
What is capillary filtration? Movement of water and solutes into interstitial fluid at arteriolar end of capillary
Is hydrostatic pressure(BP) greater or less than osmotic pressure? greater
What is hydrostatic pressure? BP inside the capillary, caused by LV contraction, pressure pushes fluid out, highest at arteriolar end, decreases as the blood moves through the capillary
What is osmotic pressure? plasma protein concentration-- pressure of a fluid due to its solute concentration (plasmas proteins/ albumin), when high, water and solutes move into the capillary (reabsorption)
What is capillary reabsorption? Movement of water and solutes back into the capillary at venule end
How does capillary reabsorptions happen? 90% is reabsorbed, rest moves into lymph capillaries
What is venous return? Volume of blood flowing back to the heart
What 4 things affect venous return? 1. Ventricular systole/blood pressure 2. Skeletal muscle pump 3. Respiratory pump 4. Valves
What is the skeletal muscle pump? Compression of veins during movement, blood moves from valve to valve
What is the respiratory pump? inhaltion( abdominal veins are compressed, blood moves toward RA), exhalation ( compression on abd veins decreases, valves prevent backflow into abdominal veins)
What is blood pressure? Pressure exerted by blood on walls of blood vessels, created by LV contaction/ systole
What happens to BP as it moves through circulatory system? It decreases
What is the BP in the aorta and large arteries? 100-120 mmHg
What is the BP in arterioles? 60-70 mmHg
What is the BP in capillaries? 25-15 mmHg
What is the BP in Venules? 15 mmHg
What is the BP in Veins? 5-6 mmHg
What is the BP in the Vena Cava? 0 mmHg
What is pulse pressure? Difference between systolic and diastolic prssure
What is Mean arterial blood pressure? Represents the pressure that pushes blood through the circulatory system - pressure averaged over the entire cardiac cycle
What is normal Mean arterial blood pressure? 70 and above is noraml 60 and below is ischemia
What are 4 factors that affect blood pressure? Resistance Size of lumen blood viscosity total blood vessel length
What does endothelium release? both constricting and dilating substancces
What is endothelium regulation stimulated by? substances in the blood ( histamine, bradykinin, nicotine) or shear stress associated with blood flow, trauma from catheters and guidewires, cold temps, HTN
What is nitric oxide? potent vasodilator released by endothelium -- lipid solubule, diffuses through endothelium and into smooth muscle cells Uncouples actin and myosin causin smooth muscle relaxation
Is BP regulation a positive or negative feedback? negative feedback-- adjusts HR, SV vascular resistance, blood volume
Where is the cardiac center? medulla oblongata, controls HR
Wheres is the vasomotor center? Medulla oblongata, controls BP
What are proprioceptors? Detect movement of joints and muscles = increase BP
What are chemorecptors? Detects changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, and pH
Where are chemorceptors located? Located in 2 carotid bodies in common carotid arteries and aortic arch
How are chemorecptors stiimulated? by hypoxia, acidosis, hypercapnia
What do chemorecpetors cause? increase HR and vasoconstriction = increase BP
What are baroreceptors? detect pressure changes in aorta, internal carotids, and large arteries in neck and chest decrease in BP = less stretch Medulla increases sympathetic stimulation which increases HR, SV AND BP
What is Renin? enzyme secreted by kidney - breaks down angiotensinogen (made in liver) into angiotensin 1
What is angiotensin 1? Travels through lungs, converted to angiotensin II by ACE
What is angiotensin II? potent vasoconstrictor--stimulates the release of aldosterone
What is aldosterone? Hormone made by adrenal cortex- causes kidney to increase reabsorption of sodium and water=increase blood volume = increase BP
What is epinephrine and norepinephrine? released by adrenal medulla during sympathetic stimulation increase HR and force of cardiac contraction = increase CO causes vasconstriction of arterioles and venules in skin and abdominal organs
What is ADH? made in hypothalamus, released by posterior pituitary gland. causes kidney to increase reabsorption of water and stimulates vasoconstriction = increase BP
What is Atrial Natriuretic peptide (ANP)? Released by atrial cells in the hearts causes vasodilation and increase sodium and water excretion by kidney (decrease blood volume)= decrease BP
What is the circulatory route of the pulmonary? flow of deoxygenated blood from RV to alveoli of lungs and back to LA
What is the circulatory route of the systemic? All systemic arteries branch from aorta all systemic veins empty into SVC or IVC
What is the circulatory route of the hepatic portal? Venous blood from GI organs and spleen enters the liver Liver processes blood before blood passes into general circulation
What is the circulatory route of fetal? Placenta- organ of exchange between fetal and maternal circulation Umbilical cord- 2 umbilical arteries (takes blood from fetus to placenta where it picks up oxygen), 1 umbilical vein (takes oxygenated blood to fetus)
Created by: lecopple1