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Endo. Disorders

Presentation of Disorders of the Endocrine System

Clinical PresentationEndocrine Abnormality
Signs of hyponatremia - brain oedema, nausea, vomiting, loss of consciousness, headache, seizure SIADH
Polyuria, polydypsia, nocturia, signs of hypernatremia (irritability, restlessness, seizures), visual field defects, muscle twitching Diabetes Insipidus
Weight loss, increased appetite, diarrhoea, intolerance to heat, sweating,palpitations,amenorrhoea, agitation, nervousness Hyperthyroidism
Weight gain,decreased appetite, hoarse voive, decreased hearing, constipation, intolerance to cold, hair loss, carpal tunnel syndrome, hypercholesterolaemia, intellectual and motor slowing, muscle cramps, menorrhoragia. Hypothyroidism
Truncal obesity, facial plethora, buffalo hump, hirsutism and acne, hypertension, oedema, proximal muscle weakness, skin striae and ecchymoses, polyuria, polydipsia, amenorrhoea, pigmentation Hypercortisolism - Cushing's syndrome
Pigmentation, vitligo, lethargy, weight loss, anorexia, nausea, diarrhoea, nocturia, mental changes, seizures, postural hypotension Hypoadrenalism - Addison's disease
Hypertension, hypokalaemia and hypernatremia Hyperaldosteronism due to an adrenal adenoma- Conn's syndrome
Sympathetic nervous system overactivity - anxiety, panic attacks, hypertension, palpitations, tremor, sweating, headache. Phaeochromocytoma
High cortisol, low ACTH Adrenal origin, Cushing's syndrome
Suppression at 2mg of dexamethasone Normal individual
High cortisol, high ACTH and suppression at 8mg of dexamethasone Cushing's disease - pituitary adenoma
High cortisol, high ACTH and is not suppressed at 8mg of dexamethasone Ectopic origin, Cushing's syndrome
Low cortisol and synathcen does not increase it significantly Addison's disease
In patients with diabetes insipidus, administering ADH will increase the urine osmolality. Central cause of diabetes insipidus
Injected insulin does not cause an increase in ACTH and GH. Hypopituitism
Administration of glucose causes an increase in growth hormone Acromegaly
Administration of glucose causes a decrease in growth hormone. Normal individual
Low cortisol and low ACTH Damaged pituitary
Low cortisol and high ACTH Non-responsive adrenal gland
High cortisol and high ACTH Over-active pituitary
High cortisol and low ACTH Autonomous adrenal gland
High total T4 concentration, normal TSH and normal free T4 An increase in thyroxine binding globulin due to pregnancy, oestrogen treatment or the oral contraceptive pill
The inability to form IGF-1, resulting in short stature and high levels of GH Laron dwarfism
An insulin receptor defect Leprechaunism
Low TSH with high T4 Hyperthyroidism
High TSH with low T4 Hypothyroidism
Increase in size of the adrenal gland, ambiguous genitalia, aldosterone crisis. Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia - deficiency in action of 21alpha-hydroxylase
Cushingoid signs and symptoms with a palpable abdominal mass Adrenal carcinoma
Cushingoid signs/symptoms with an absence of the Cushingoig body habitus, more prominent oedema and hypertension and marked muscle weakness Ectopic ACTH production (eg. small cell carcinoma of the lung)
Hyperpigmentation and Cushingoid appearance Extra-adrenal tumour producing ACTH
Created by: Epoot