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WHII People

Vocabulary GCA WHII

TermDefinitionTime Period
Machiavelli Author of "The Prince." Wanted absolute rule. "The end Justifies the mean" Renaissance
Leonardo da Vinci Painter, engineer, and architect. Painted the "Mona Lisa" and "The Last Supper". Known as the Renaissance man Renaissance
Michelangelo Painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Sculpted David Renaissance
Raphael School of Athens, and many paintings of the Madonna Renaissance
Petrarch Wrote sonnets (short love poems) and was the first humanist scholar. Renaissance
Dante Wrote the "Devine Comedy". emphasized politics and human interests. Renaissance
Johannes Gutenberg From Germany, and inventor of the Printing press Renaissance
Erasmus Wrote "The Praise of Folly" which made fun of some church's follies and blunders. Renaissance
Sir Thomas Moore Wrote Utopia Renaissance
Shakespeare Wrote sonnets, plays, and essays to discuss the events of his time Renaissance
Jan Huss was part of the push for Czech nationalism. He refused to recant (take back) his views and was burned as a heretic Renaissance
John Wycliffe criticized monks, excommunication, and the Catholic mass. He emphasized reading the Bible in the vernacular (English). He said that true believers, not corrupt priests, formed the church Renaissance
Martin Luther started the Protestant Reformation when his 95 Theses were published by the printing press, and spread throughout Germany Reformation
John Calvin spread Protestantism throughout Europe by emphasizing predestination, a strict lifestyle, and a strong work ethic. Reformation
Henry VIII I created the Anglican Church to get a divorce without the pope’s permission, establish a male heir, and seize all Church land and wealth. Reformation
Elizabeth I nationalized the Anglican Church, made England a strong overseas empire by colonial expansion into the Americas and Asia. Her rule was known for victory over the Spanish Armada Reformation
Ignatius of Loyola Founder of the Jesuits Reformation
Prince Henry the Navigator Prince Henry the Navigator (from Portugal) played a pioneering role in navigation…without having actually set sail Age of Discovery
Vasco da Gama Sailed around the southern tip of Africa to India (Da Gama from Da Portugal went to Da India) Age of Discovery
Christopher Columbus “Sailed the Ocean Blue in 1492”. Ran into the Western Hemisphere. Started the Columbian Exchange Age of Discovery
Ferdinand Magellan : Circumnavigated the globe but he died on the way in the Philippines Age of Discovery
Hernando Cortez Conquistador that conquered the Aztec Empire; Cortez = Aztecs Age of Discovery
Francisco Pizarro Conquistador that conquered the Inca; Pizarro – Inca Age of Discovery
Francis Drake Defeated the Spanish Armada (navy) in 1588AD. Pretty much was a pirate. Circumnavigated the globe (and lived!) Age of Discovery
Jacques Cartier Made good relationships with Native Americans in Canada. Cartier = Canada Age of Discovery
Ottoman Empire a Turkish-speaking nomadic people who had migrated from Central Asia into northwestern Asia Minor. Global Trade
Suleyman I known as “the Magnificent” and “the Lawgiver”. He was a brilliant military general and leader. Global Trade
Mughal Empire Descendants of the Mongols, the Muslim rulers entered India through the Khyber Pass and established an empire in northern India. Global Trade
Akbar the Great the greatest Mughal leader. Global Trade
Taj Mahal a Muslim mausoleum or tomb in India Global Trade
Ming Dynasty Chinese dynasty meaning brilliant Global Trade
Zheng He an adventurous and successful Chinese sailor, took seven voyages around the Indian Ocean to Africa Global Trade
Manchus from Manchuria took over China in 1644 and set up the Qing Dynasty Global Trade
Qing Dynasty took over China in 1644 Global Trade
shogun the supreme military commander of Japan Global Trade
Minamoto Yoritomo first Japanese shogun in 1192AD. Had more power than the emperor due to military support. Global Trade
daimyos Japanese noble landowners Global Trade
samurai Japanese warriors Global Trade
Copernicus developed heliocentric theory Interest in planets/space Aerospace Scientific Revolution
Kepler discovered planetary motion Interest in planets/space Aerospace Scientific Revolution
Galileo used telescope to support heliocentric theory Aerospace studies Scientific Revolution
Newton formulated law of gravity Physics Scientific Revolution
Harvey discovered circulation of the blood Chemistry/ Anatomy/ Biology Scientific Revolution
Vesalius accurately detailed the study of human anatomy Anatomy/ Biology Scientific Revolution
Bacon Added experimentation and observation in scientific method; wanted logic and ethics to science Scientific method Scientific Revolution
Descartes Invented deductive reasoning Scientific method Scientific Revolution
Philip II ruled:spain,netherlands, southern italian states,and over seas colonies; lead spain through a golden age,first to claim absolute power/inflation from americas and was defeated by britan in 1588 Age of Absolutism
Louis XIV known as the"sun king",built the palace of versailles/ ran nation into debt and wasted money on a lavished life style Age of Absolutism
Peter the Great westernized russia and expanded russian territory,conquered st.petersburg/used terror to inforce absolute power Age of Absolutism
Catherine the Great reduced taxes,reformed russias legal system/worsen conditions for peasants Age of Absolutism
James I tried to rule with divine right, didnt get along with parliment Age of Absolutism
Charles I forced to sign Petition of Right by parliment Age of Absolutism
Hobbes wrote:leviathan, stated that people are naturally cruel and greedy and because of this must be a central authority, felt that the best government was an absolute monarchy Enlightenment
Locke wrote: two treatises on government, best government is a democracy Enlightenment
Montesquieu wrote:the spirit of las, separation of powers Enlightenment
Voltaire wrote: candide,seperation of church and state Enlightenment
Rousseau wrote:the social condract,society corrupts,individual intrest= common goods Enlightenment
Bach a german musician Enlightenment
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart a influential composer of the classical era, was a prodigy at a young age Enlightenment
Haydn an austrian composer known as the most prominent composers od the classical era Enlightenment
Cervantes a spanish novelist, wrote don quixote Enlightenment
Delacroix a french artist, painted liberty leading the people Enlightenment
Louis XVI king of france was beheaded along with his wife marie antioinette French Revolution
1st Estate catholic church/clergy French Revolution
2nd Estate nobility French Revolution
3rd Estate everybody else (97% of the population) French Revolution
Bourgeoisie educated middle class French Revolution
Maria Antoinette austrian queen extravagant spender French Revolution
Jean-Paul Marat a jacobin journalist,murdered at the start of the reign of terror French Revolution
Maximilien Robespierre mastermind of the Reign of Terror French Revolution
Napoleon Bonaparte over threw the french government French Revolution
Count Cavour unified northern italy Revolutions
Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern and northern italy Revolutions
Otto von Bismarck prime minister of prussia,conbined nationalism and conservation; Realpolitik Revolutions
Viceroys leaders of colonial system Latin American Revolutions
peninsulares europeans living in the new world Latin American Revolutions
creoles born in americas to european parents Latin American Revolutions
mestizos one european parent and one native parent Latin American Revolutions
mulattoes one european and one african parent Latin American Revolutions
Toussaint L’Ouverture born a slave,legally freed, devoted himself to freeing other slaves leading to the hatian independence in 1804 Latin American Revolutions
Simone Bolivar a creole, traveled to europe with enlightenment ideas Latin American Revolutions
Jose de San Martin military general,trained in europe Latin American Revolutions
Dom Pedro first ruler of brazil known as the "liberator" Latin American Revolutions
James Hargreaves invented the spinning wheel Industrial Revolution
Richard Arkwright invented the spinning frame Industrial Revolution
James Watt invented the steam engine Industrial Revolution
Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom Industrial Revolution
Eli Whitney invited the cotten gin Industrial Revolution
Henry Bessemer invented the steel manufacture Industrial Revolution
John McAdam invented a new road building process Industrial Revolution
Edward Jenner invented the small pox vaccine Industrial Revolution
Louis Pasteur invented vaccines for diseases Industrial Revolution
Adam Smith wrote the wealth of nations , laissez faire- the government should have limited role in the economy Industrial Revolution
Karl Marx wrote the communist manifesto,haves vs. have nots Industrial Revolution
Friedrich Engels helped write the communist manifesto Industrial Revolution
bourgeoisie bussiness owners/capitalist Industrial Revolution
proletariat lower working class Industrial Revolution
Matthew Perry person who initiated trade between the US and Japan Industrial Revolution
Central Powers Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Italy, Bulgaria World War I
Allies England, France, Russia, Serbia, Italy(1915), U.S, colonies World War I
Archduke Francis Ferdinand was shot and killed by an bosnian revolutionist. World War I
Kaiser Wilhelm II emperor of germany.Proud and arrogant, World War I
Woodrow Wilson president of US from 1913-1921. convinces congress to declare war on Germany World War I
tsar term for an absolute ruler from Russia Russian Revolution
Nicholas II Tsar of Russia, Weak and incompretent Russian Revolution
Rasputin Fraudulent monk with greedy and corrupt motives Russian Revolution
Vladimir Lenin lead the Russian Revolution; Bolshevik leader Russian Revolution
Leon Trotsky Russian commander of the Communists Russian Revolution
Joseph Stalin Dictator of USSR in 1927. Totalitarianism.5-year plan. Command Economy Russian Revolution
Benito Mussolini Fascist Party leader of Italy. Tried to restore Italy to the glory or Rome. Invaded Ethiopia. World War II
Hideki Tojo Japanese military leader during WWII World War II
Hirohito Emperor of Japan(figure head). Thought of as a devine god World War II
Adolf Hitler Dictator of Germany and the Nazi Party. wrote "Mein Kampf". Blamed jews. Tried to restore Aryan race. started the Holocaust. World War II
Aryan Race The Germanic people World War II
Franklin D. Roosevelt president of US during WWII. president during Pearl Harbor Attack World War II
Harry Truman US President that dropped two attomic bombs on Japan World War II
Dwight D. Eisenhower helped command the invassion on D-Day World War II
Douglas MacArthur General of the US Army. led the occupation of Japan World War II
Winston Churchill prime minister of great britain World War II
The “Big Three” Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin Interwar Period
North Atlantic treaty Organization (NATO) political organization including Western Europe, US, Canada Post War Conflicts
Warsaw Pact Included Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe; response to NATO Cold War
United Nations (UN) Goverment organization created to keep world peace Post War Conflicts
Chaing Kai-Shek nationalist leader of china Chinese Revolution
Mao Zedong communist leader of china Chinese Revolution
Deng Xiaping communist leader of China after Mao. Makes Market economy Chinese Revolution
Ho Chi Minh Vietnamese communist leader of North Vietnam Vietnam War
Nixon US president elected to bring the war to an honorable end to Vietnam War Cold War
Fidel Castro led the communist revolt in cuba Cold War
Nikita Khrushchev leader of Russia during the cuban revolution Cold War
John F. Kennedy President of US during the Cuban revolution Cold War
Mikhail Gorbachev Last president of the USSR. Tried to stop soviet collapse. Cold War
Boris Yeltsin first elected president of Russia Cold War
Ronal Reagan US President who increased pressure on the Soviets Cold War
Margaret Thatcher British prime minister; ally with Reagan Cold War
“Iron Lady” Margaret Thatcher Cold War
Mohandas Gandhi Tried to free India from British control using nonviolence Decolonization
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. US Civil Rights leader who used Gandhi's non-violent ideas Decolonization
Jawaharlal Nehru First prime minister of India Decolonization
Indira Gandhi Nehrus Daughter. 3rd prime minister of India. Decolonization
Golda Meir Female prime minister of Isreal. Gets support from US Decolonization
Gamal Abdul Nasser President of Egypt. Nationalized the Suez Canal Decolonization
Jomo Kenyatta Father of Kenya Decolonization
Nelson Mandela Anti-apartheid leader of South Africa, first black president Decolonization
Created by: WorldStudiesII