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AP ReviewTerminology

TermDefinition
Mercator Projection A map projection that fairly accurately shows shape and direction, but distorts distance and size of land masses.
Peters Projection a cylindrical map projection that attempts to retain the accurate sizes of all the world's landmasses
Robinson Projection Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each.
Environmental Determinism the view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life including cultural development
Formal Region An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics.
Vernacular Region An area that people believe to exsist as part of their cultural identity (perceptual region)
Functional Region A region defined by the particular set of activities or interactions that occur within it
Ecumene The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
Arithmetic Density The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Physiological Density The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Agricultural Density The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Epidemiologic Transition Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Carrying Capacity largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Migration Transition Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition
Migration Selectivity Only people exhibiting certain characteristics in a population choosing to migrate.
Net Migration The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration.
Intervening Obstacle An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration.
Intervening Opportunity The presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away.
Acculturation the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
Assimilation the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
Sequent Occupance The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape
Culture Complex unique combination of culture traits for a particular culture group
Isogloss a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs, rarely a simple line
Creole A stable natural language developed from the mixing of parent languages.
Agriculture Theory With increased food supply and increased population, speakers from the hearth of Indo-European languages migrated into Europe.
Animism the belif that life exists in all objects- rocks, people, lakes, mountains
Autonomous Religion A religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally.
Syncretic Religion Combination of two or more faiths into one belief system; typically allowed in Buddhism.
Shatterbelt a region caught between powerful forces who boundaries are continually redefined
Irredentism The desire of a state to gain and regain territory inhabited by people who have historic or cultural links to the country but now live in a neighboring state
Cartel An association of manufacturers or suppliers that maintains prices at a high level and restricts competition.
Antecedent Boundary A boundary which is drawn before an area is heavily populated
Subsequent Boundary A boundary that is drawn in after permanent settlement Ex. The boundaries of Poland
Consequent Boundary A border drawn to accommodate existing religious, linguistic, ethnic, or economic differences
Sovereignty A state having control over its internal affairs without interference from other states
Gerrymandering Drawing district lines to promote a majority party
Devolution The process of transferring power from a central government to lower governments, which does not necessarily turn the system into a federal one.
GDP per Capita GDP divided by the number of people in a given population
Gender Development Index A measure of the economic equality of men and women; published by the UN
Extractive Industry A business that explores for, removes, processes, and sells minerals, oil, and gas that are found on or beneath the earth's surface and are nonrenewable
Comparative Advantage The ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer
Agribusiness Business of farming conducted by large-scale operations that purchase, produce, finance, package, and distribute agricultural products
Desertification process where fertile land becomes a desert
Quaternary sectors information services and "knowledge" sectors
Quinary Sectors High level analysis and decision-making
Monoculture Planting a single crop in a field often over a large area
Transhumanance A mix of staying home and following the herds among pastoral groups.
Horticulture Cultivation that makes intensive use of none of the factors of production: land, labor, capital, and machinery, slash burn technique; The growing of fruits, vegtables, and flowers
Entrepot trading center where goods are exported and imported without cost
Dispersed Rural Settlement Farmers living on individual farms isolated from neighbors
Conurbation A large urban area composed of a network of cities; almost synonymous with Megalopolis.
Core-Domain-Sphere The place where concentration of culture traits that characterizes a region is greatest. 3 levels of concentration of a characteristic
Pidgin a language of contact and trade composed of features of the original languages or two or more societies (compare with creole)
Lingua Franca a commonly shared language that is used as a medium of communication between people of different language
Conquest Theory Theory that holds that early speakers of Prot-Indo-European spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tongues.
Sharia law The system of islamic law, sometimes called Quranic law. Unlike most Western systems of law that are based on legal precedence, Sharia is based on varying degrees of interpretation of the Quran
Hierarchical Religion a religion in which a central authority excercises a high degree of control
Balkanization Process by which a state breaks down though conflicts amoung its ethnicities.
Apartheid the geographic separation of races Ex. South Africa.
Created by: wowzombieland