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A.P. World History

AP World History Key words

Neolithic Revolution the major shift nearly 12000 years ago that Marks the beginning of the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture
Agriculture domestication or cultivation of plants for food and money
Cuneiform first writing (Sumerians)
Hieroglyphics ancient Egyptian's writing
Fertile Cresent a crescent shape area of fertile land in the middle east and North Africa
Judaism the religion of the ancient Hebrew people- monotheistic (Yahweh)
Zoroatrianism first monotheistic religion- worshiped Ahura Mazda
Vedic Religion formed in northern India that turned into Hinduism
Torah the holy book of the Hebrew people
Vedas the holy book and hymn/song books for the vedic religion
Book of the dead a book of rituals, for the deceased from ancient Egypt
Avesta the holy book of Zoroastrians
Epic of Gilgamesh the World's first literary masterpiece
Hammurabi's Code the worlds first and oldest legal code (Babylon)
Oracle Bones bones that are the primary source for writing from the Shang Dynasty
Theocracy the state is ruled by religious leaders
Monarchy one person holds the most power
Nobility the elite people and families who are administrators
Specialization of Labor different groups of people entered into different occupations of specialization
Patriarchy masculinity is more valuable than femininity
Mesopotamia the worlds first civilization- between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Egypt a major civilization located along the Nile River
Indus River Valley Civilization along the Indus River, it flourished and then mysteriously disappeared (Harrapa)
Shang the first Chinese dynasty-left records
Zhou the 2nd historical Chinese dynasty-established the Mandate of Heaven ideology
Olmec american civilization in Mexico with an undeciphered writing system (large heads)
Chavin Peruvian culture going into the Andes
Bantu Migration a 1000 year long migration of the Bantu across Africa
Qin Dynasty reunited the old Zhou dynasty and conquered new areas (standardized weights, measures, writing,great wall
Qin shi Huangdi "the first emperor" first real Emperor of china
Han Dynasty Confucian dynasty, long period of unity, same characters used today
Confucianism emphasis on Hierarchy, education, and just governance
Doaism harmony with oneself and nature
Leagalism Qin dynasty, similar to totalitarianism
Silk road land and sea routes for trade
Hinduism a very diverse religion that developed out of Vedism
moksha the ultimate goal of reuniting with Brahman
Siddartha Gautama-Buddha the founder of Buddism
Buddism an offshoot of Hinduism centers on escaping from the endless cycle of reincarnation
Caste (jati) people were stuck in the same social class as they were born in
Ashoka ruler of the Maurya Empire in India, known for converting/spreading to buddhism
Maurya Empire the first empire to unify most of India, Pakistan, and Burma
Gupta Empire India's Golden age
Polis greek name for an independent city-state
Athens city-state, known for a limited form of democracy (males only)
Sparta city-state ruled by kings, known for strong army
Alexander the Great a Macedonian ruler in Greece, conquered most of the Achamenid Empire
Hellenism a combination of Greek, Arabic, and Indian cultures
Roman Republic the government of early Rome, overthrown in 27 BCE
Roman Empire the new government after 27 BCE
Constantine ruled from 306-337 CE, Legalized Christianity and built new capital
Maya culture of several city states in southern Mexico and Central america
Islam the 2nd largest religion after Christianity
Muhammad the founder of Islam
Mecca the city of Muhammad's birth and the holiest pilgrimage site
Sunni focuses on the need for the leaders to be chosen by leaders and scriptures(largest)
Shi'a focuses on leaders being direct descendants of Muhammad(2nd largest)
Umayyad the largest Islamic caliphate
Koran the holy book of Islam
Abbasid a large Shi'a caliphate based in baghdad
Crusades a series of wars between Catholic and Islamic armies to control route to the middle east
Mali and Empire in west africa famous for Timbuktu
Timbuktu the largest city in west africa
Ibn Battuta a traveler from north Africa who wrote travel accounts as he traveled to china and back
Swahilli a language and culture that developed out of Bantu and Arab interactions
Eastern Roman Empire the surviving part of the Roman Empire, capital at Constantinople
byzantine Empire another name of east half of the Roman empire
Vikings Scandinavian who raided northern and eastern Europe before 1000 CE
Feudalism power: kings-Nobles-workers/serfs
Charlemagne the founder of the Holy Roman Empire
Goths scandinavian people that conquered most of western europe
Aztec Empire 3 allied city-states in mexico
Inca Empire andes Mt.s
Tang Dynasty Openness to foreign influences (buddhism)
Song Dynasty Ideology of Neo-Confucianism
Yuan Dynasty established by Kublai Khan
Ming Dynasty the Chinese Dynasty that overthrew the Mongols, Launched Zheng He's voyages
Empress Wu the only woman to rule china & first to use the civil service examinations
Samurai professional warriors who served Japanese feudal Lords (daimyo)
Daimyo japanese fuedal Lords
Mongols a turkic group who conquered most of asia to Europe in the 13-15th centuries
GenghisKhan then first Mongol ruler to unify all Mongols under his banner
Mit'a a labor tax in the Inca Empire
Renaissance a period in western Europe marked by the revival of classical Greek and Roman
Christopher Columbus the explorer whose voyage to the Americas began the period of European colonization
Johannes Gutenberg credited with creating the movable printing press
Martin Luther The founder of the Protestant Reformation in Germany
95 theses Martin Luthers Complaints against the Catholic Church
Protestantism A broad term covering many different denominations of Christianity that split from the Catholic Church in the 15-16th centuries
Isaac Newton a major figure of the Scientific Revolution (calculus, gravity, physics)
John Locke an enlightenment thingker known for universal human/male rights
Deism a philosophy that said God could not interfere in the system that God designed
Enlightenment a period of intellectual activity after the Scientific Revolution, solve problems with rationality and logic
Peter the Great the tsar of Russia's first european-style court-St. Petersburg
Serfs indentured laborers considered part of feudal lords land
Encomiendas Grants of American villages to Spanish settlers
Sugar Most profitable cropin the Americas-from India
Silver the universal world currency at this time
Potosi located in bolivia, largest silver mine in the world
Middle passage the shipping between the Americas and africa-mostly for slaves
Triangular trade european goods->African Slaves-> american goods-> european goods
Ottoman Empire a turkish empire lasted until WWI
Janissaries the elite infantry corps of the Ottoman empire
Mughals the Muslim Mongol empire that conquered india
Akbar the Great the most famous Mughal leader famous for religious tolerance and building the Taj Muhal
Ming Dynasty the dynasty founded after expelling the mongols from China- voyages of Zheng He
Qing Dynasty the dynasty founded when Ming was conquered by manchu armies-LAST Dynasty
Tokugawa Shogunate the last shogunate of Japan-hostile to Europeans
French Revolution the overthrow of France's king to create a secular republic
Maximilien Robespierre the early leader of the french Revolution known for public executions
Napoleon Bonaparte a military general of French revolution who seized power
Factory Acts acts that prohibited child labor in British factories
Otto von Bismark a prussian politition who unified Germany
Socialism everyone is =
capitalism private companies control profits
Karl Marx socialism/comunist founder
Adam Smith the founding father of capitalism
Nationalism the belief that the world should be divided into nation states
Feminism a movement advocating for the rights and equality of women
Anarchism a movement adcocating for the end of the employer-employee relations
British East India Co. a company founded in 17th century that would later conquer India
Sepoy Mutiny a mutiny over British East India Co.'s toops
Toussaint Louverture leader of the Haitian Revolution
Simon Bolivar major player in the anti-spain revolutions (northern)- founded venezuela
Opium Wars 2 wars fought over chinese trade resistance with European traders
Taiping Rebellion a large psuedo-protestant rebellion in 1850s china
Russo-Japanese War a war between Russia and Japan in which Japan won
Meiji Restoration the period after the overthrow of the tokugawa shogun- rapid industrialization
Olympe de Gouges the author of an early proto-feminist doc. during the french Revolution
NATO (North Atlantic treaty org.) alliance developed by the US to protect its allies
Self-determination the belief that each nation should determine its own destiny
Armenian Genocide Genocide commited by the Ottoman Empire from 1915-1923
Adolf Hitler leader of Nazi Germany
Zionism the historical belief that a jewish state should be established
NATO (North Atlantic treaty org.) alliance developed by the US to protect its allies
Self-determination the belief that each nation should determine its own destiny
Armenian Genocide Genocide commited by the Ottoman Empire from 1915-1923
Adolf Hitler leader of Nazi Germany noted for mass murder
Zionism the historical belief that a jewish state should be established
Benito Mussolini leader of facist Italy
Facism form of government marked by military and police coercion
Totalitarianism government uses total control & mass media to try to control people's thoughts
Russian Revolution the revolution that deposed the last tsar of Russia
Vladimir Lenin the first leader of the Soviet Union
Josef Stalin the leader of S.U. during WWII noted for mass murder
Collectivization organization of the countryside into comunes
Nationalization the appropriation of private property in a nation-state
Moa Zedong first leader of Communist China- great leap forward/Cultural Revolution
Great Leap forward a failed attempt at collectivizing and industrializing the chinese countruside
Cultural Revolution a rebelion against not-communist-enough intellectuals and members of the Communist party
Great Depression FAB all down
5 year plan plans for the centrally administered economies of China and the SU
WWII started with hitler annexing czechloslovakia
Blitzkrieg name given to the strategy of the mechanized german invasions
Holocaust Nazi genocide
UN organization founded after WWII
Palestine former territory of the Ottoman Empire
Israel state founded in 1948 following a civil war in palestine
Cold War series of proxy wars and military build-up between the US and USSR
Containment a stratagy taken by the US to prevent the spread of communism
Berlin Wall built by the east germany to stop their citizens from deflecting
Fidel Castro the leader of Socialist Cuba
Cuban Missile Crisis an international incident following the US learning about the soviet plan to build a missile base in cuba
Liberation theology a catholic ideology promoting pan-Islamic unity and creating islamic states
Green Revolution a technological revolution that vastly increased world food production with genetically engineered food
Muslim Brotherhood An organization aimed at promoting pan-Islamic unity and creating Islamic states.
Korean War A war fought between China and North Korea on one side and a UN peacekeeping force and South Korea on the other.
Deng Xiaoping The leader of China from 1977 to 1997. Known for improving relations with the United States and Europe as well as implementing limited capitalist reforms
Mikhail Gorbachev the last leader of the Soviet Union. Known for relaxing censorship and police powers.
Glasnost Gorbachev's policy of "openness," in which censorship was reduced and many government documents were made public
Perestoika Gorbachev's policy of "restructuring" or implementing free market reforms
Rwanda Genocide Genocide committed by the Hutu ethnic group against the Tutsi ethnic group in Rwanda
Gulf War War between the United States, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia on one side and Iraq on the other
Created by: Sejsarah