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ANTH 140- Unit 3

the second major transition in prehistory state-level societies emerging
state large, socially complex urban societies
V. Gordon Childe created the characteristics for a state
primary characteristics (5) cities, labor specialization, concentrate surplus, stratification, organization
secondary characteristics (6) monumental architecture, long distance trade, standardized monuments/artwork, record keeping/writing, predictive sciences
WHAT CHARACTERISTICS MUST EXIST food surplus, labor specialization, social stratification, large, urban population, writing/sciences, monumental architecture
location of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers (not fertile crescent)
Tell/Tepe/Huyuk mesas/mounds
Mesopotamian cultures in order Hassuna, Halaf, Samarra, Ubiad, Uruk (middle, late), Early Dynastic, Agade
Hassuna culture stamp seals, transition to agriculture
Halaf culture single style of pottery over a large space (controlled by institution)
Samarra culture south of Mesopotamia; irrigation; makers marks on pottery; fortification
Ubiad beginning of large city centers surrounded by hamlets
Eridu (Ubiad) rebuilt 13-17 times (5000 people)
Ubiad expansion increased population, goods transferred from India and Turkey
Uruk wheel, plow, potters wheel (but creativity dwindled); bevel-rim bowls
Uruk expansion attempt of people trying to politically establish themselves w/ trade routes (still not politically unified)
When had writing begun in Mesopotamia? 3400 BC
3 places where state-level society emerged mesopotamia, egypt, maya
farming does not cause state level societies to develop, but there has never been a state without farming true
the emergence of large urban center with small harming hamlets appeared during the ubiad
the early states is Mesopotamia developed in the Fertile Crescent false
During the Ubiad, evidence for social differences mainly came from burials false?
3 technological/social innovations from the Uruk bevel-rim bowls, wheel, plow
the following are all names of Uruk city states except Ubiad
what true state characteristic were the cultures of North America missing? writing
the oldest evidence for earthen architecture in North America is found during what period? Archaic
what characteristics did Cahokia posses that warrant its inclusion in the ranks of complex chiefdom/early pre-state societies? monumental works/elite burials
which of the following has been associated with the Late Preclassic Maya period? all of the above (writing, social stratification, polychrome pottery)
the dietary trinity is what? corns, beans, and squash
Lower Egypt is the area of the Nile Delta
The Maya were originally considered to be a peaceful people until their hieroglyphs were deciphered true
The analysis of coprolite found at the Cowboy Wash site shows the past is open to interpretation, and we must be careful how the media and scientists project these interpretations
The explorations of the Spanish brought disease and terrible destruction to the Inca. Modern archaeologists are working hard to recover and preserve those Inca artifacts that were not destroyed; including their mummified royals. true
Social status differentiation can be determined from burials through the analysis of all the following except burial orientation towards the east (rising sun)
NAGPRA is the native american graves protection and repatriation act
all archaeologists agree that the Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures has a formal government in place in prehistoric times false
paleoanthropology refers to the study of human evolution
LiDAR is a new beneficial technology that enables archaeologists to see otherwise hidden features, like Mayan terraces true
all of the following are characteristics of radiocarbon dating except dates up to 500,000 years
the three basic goals of archaeology include the following except comparing ancient cultures to modern ones
evolution is defined as survival of the fittest
the law of superposition older things are on bottom layers
all is true of Dendrochronology except we can't use this in Europe
which of these is considered an anthropologist? all of the above
which is NOT a sub-discipline of anthropology? history
dating- ceramic pot from central ohio thermoluminescence
dating- leather from 50,000 YA european site radio-carbon
dating- oldowan tools in Ethiopia potassium-argon?
dating- wooden beam in the American southwest dendrochronology
dating- obsidian tool of Classic Period Maya obsidian hydration
dating- charcoal from 10,000 YA radio-carbon
dating- grass sandal radio-carbon
(absolute/relative&direct/indirect): potassium argon absolute, indirect
(absolute/relative&direct/indirect): radiocarbon absolute, direct
(absolute/relative&direct/indirect): dendrochronology relative, direct
(absolute/relative&direct/indirect): archaeomagnetism absolute, direct
(absolute/relative&direct/indirect): time markers/diagnostic artifacts relative, indirect
agricultural people have more economic incentives to have more children true
hunter-gatherers engage in agricultural behavior without ever becoming farmers true
adoption of an agricultural way of life in some areas led to... greater sedentism, population increase, greater complexity *all of the above
agriculture results in *none of the above (NOT more health; NOT less warfare; NOT more free time)
farming is a recent variation for the human race true
agriculture and foraging are equally intense subsistence strategies false
why is agriculture the devil's bargain? (3) nutritional value; cyclic process; disease
biological anthropology the study of the biological aspects of humans
cultural anthropology the study of non-western culture
ethnology the study of all parts of culture
participant observation (cultural anthro) live w/ people they study
diachronic development/changes through time
synchronic emphasizes the contemporary state
Late Uruk elaboration of high-status life and religious ritual (ziggurats); knowledge class
Early Dynastic (Meso) specialists attached to institutions or important people; kings named; slaves
Agade period Sargon of Agade succeeded in conquering all of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia time periods (in order) HHSUU(E)DA hassuna, halaf, samarra, ubiad, uruk, early dynastic, agade
Egypt characterized by periods of strong central unity separated by periods of disorder
upper nile (further south)-> habitable land is along the floodplain
lower nile (further north)-> delta
was irrigation used in Egypt? nope!
Menetho historian of 3rd century BC (studied Egypt)
Early Dynastic (egypt) 31 dynasties over 3000 years (old, middle, new)
Old Kingdom (egypt) pyramids, sphinx (stepped, flat, then great pyramids) (ARCHITECTURE that we learn about)
Middle Kingdom (egypt) smaller/less impressive pyramids
New Kingdom burials were in deep, rock-cut tombs (POWER that we learn about)
type of writing in Uruk pre-cuneiform (not spoken utterances) pierced tokens, clay envelopes *associated w/ powerful people
Early Dynastic (Meso) type of writing (cuneiform)-> angular stylus against clay (from pictures to arbitrary letters)
Rosetta Stone narrative written by Ptolemy V
Sumer vs. Egypt Egypt had one single power; both were bureaucratic; more power struggles in Meso; more stratification in Egypt (surplus)
were Mayan city centers densely populated? no!
Cenotes deep sink holes (Maya) used for water and sacrifices
camote sweet potato used by the Mayans
Mayan Cultural Traits ceremonial centers w/ pyramids; open plaza centers; palaces, ball courts; mural painting; decorated ceramics; priests; kings/queens
Mayan time periods in order (EMLELT) Early preclassic, middle preclassic, late preclassic, early classic, late classic, terminal
Mayan Early Preclassic human disturbance and maize
Mayan Middle Preclassic explosion of population in lowlands
Mayan Late Preclassic main features of Mayan civilization in place (polychrome pottery, jade jewelry, stelae, causeways, bark paper, religious writing, propaganda, calendar, 3x population)
Mayan stratification women pierced tongues, men pierced penises; different pottery for nobles' burials
Mayan Early Classic in contact w/ Teotihuacan; unstable rule (never one place); specialists; farmers supplement to feed selves (not controlled by the state
Mayan Late Classic Teotihuacan in decline (thus less trading), population overgrowth, more monuments, competitive economy b/w city-states, warfare
Mayan Terminal Classic disease, overpopulation, over-farming (erosion), arms race in monument construction`
Paleoindians large game hunters (Clovis, Folsom)
Archaic increased reliance on plant foods and small game; smaller foraging ranges
Woodland sedentism, ceramics, domesticated plants, mounds
Mississippian agricultural communities, chiefdom
who is the "father of archaeology"? Thomas Jefferson
thoughts about Moundbuilders in 1800s they were smarter than current Native Americans (not true)
shapes of burial mounds linear, animal-shaped, conical, circular, zig-zag, biconical, problematic, oval
Watson Brake/Poverty Point mounds oldest (end of Archaic) no agriculture
Adena Mounds (no surplus, no stratified class, no organization, no writing/science)
Hopewell Mounds effigy mounds; trade network (no surplus, stratified class, organization, writing/science)
Mississippian Mounds high status lived on top of mounds; no science; decline is a mystery
Cahokia (mississippian- largest structure north of Mesoamerica)
Jared Diamond: 5 point framework human impacts on environment, climate change, relations w/ friendly societies, relations w/ unfriendly societies, political/economic/cultural factors
general conclusions of collapsed societies build up, peak, fast decline
why problems don't get solved (and lead to collapse) conflicts of interest b/w elites and society as a whole
resolutions to societal collapse fix time bombs, or they will fix themselves in an unpleasant way
SAA code of ethics stewardship (conservation), commercialization (discourage it), outreach (teach)
SAA cyclical problem ideas of it conflict w/ one another
Ishi, the "Last Wild Indian" forced to be a research subject for remainder of his life (brain returned >50 years later)
Antiquities Act of 1906 Theodore Roosevelt-> allows any president to provide protection of a site
National Historic Preservation Act advisory council, national register, preservation office, section 106 (review process)
Successes of NAGPRA 39,000 bodies returned
Failures of NAGPRA how is it decided who gets things back? how do you prove it? -cultural affiliation is supposed to count- but what about scientifically proving they're not related?
Kennewick Man different features from NA's; projectile lodged in hip; 9-year battle; in museum but can't be viewed (compromise)
circumscription being surrounded by environmental boundaries & thus required context or warfare for more food
anthropogenic a process resulting from human activity
terracotta a hard, brown-orange earthenware clay
tholoi ancient mesopotamian round structure
pantheon the officially recognized gods of a people
carnelian a reddish variety of quartz (Mesopotamia)
scapulimancy the ancient practice of seeing knowledge in cracks of bones
soapstone/steatite easy to carve
intaglio an engraving in stone or other hard material that is depressed below the surface
chlorite green stone that resembles mica
serpentine dull green stone w/ mottled appearance
pipal tree in Asia & has significance for those cultures
papyrus a tall marsh plant of the Nile valley that Egyptians wrote on
necropolis cemetery (greek)
wadi dry stream bed (arabic)
shaduf egyptian bucket and lever lifting device
Jenne-jeno west africa
Angkor maritime kingdom in SE asia
Zimbabwe trading center
gorget circular ornament worn over the chest
charnel house where the dead are placed
talud-tablero architecture of Teotihuacan
patrilocal families live w/ husband (Teotihuacan)
capital of Aztec society Tenochtitlan
Aztec markets very advanced
Incas highlands/lowlands; roads, astronomy; beer;
Distinguished lecture article don't fail at communication; the bridge to the 21st century may be difficult
Mayan Archaeologists Turn to the Living to Help Save the Dead article improve economy=save archaeological sites
Uncovering American's Pyramid Builders article Cahokia: "you're not a society"; fairly populous; never had written language; peaceful; matriarchal; protein-poor diet may have been why they left
A Coprological View of Ancestral Puebloan Cannibalism article cannibal did happen; but it was not common
Uncovering Secrets of the Sphinx article one thing of limestone; lined up with the sun; built at a time of more rainfall
Lofty Ambitions of the Inca article small villages organized together; no writing; mummies stolen
Earth Movers article in Brazil's rainforest; no stone for building
Lost Cites of the Amazon article garden cities; walled towns in the Amazon
The Past as Propaganda article Hitler's archaeologists distorted European prehistory to justify racist goals
Order of N. American civilizations EHHAWS Early mounds, Hohokam, Hopewell, Ancestral Puebloan, Woodland, Mississippian
Olmec yes state/rituals
Indus Valley yes state/handicraft
Hohokam Phoenix basin; Snaketown
Chaco Canyon Ancestral Puebloan
Ancestral Puebloan aka Anasazi (means evil enemy in Navajo)
Pueblo Bonito Ancestral Puebloan- 4 stories, in the middle of nowhere
Kiva sunken roof ceremonial structures (Ancestral Puebloan)
Mogollon not much known (America); heavily looted sites
Created by: melaniebeale
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