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Phlebotomy review

NHA review notes

QuestionAnswer
When drawing for a coagulation study, a phlebotomist should fill a light blue tube to the top
The tourniquet should be left on the patient's arm No longer tan 60 seconds
For this condition emergency first aid treatment include maintaining open airway, controlling bleeding and keeping the patient warm until help arrives shock
WBC, RBC, glucose and electrolyte are ordered for a patient which is acceptable for skin puncture, which color tube should be drawn Lavender/RED
The proper procedure after collecting an ammonia specimen place tube in ice water slurry
Additive in gray tube Potassium Oxalate
Vein easily found in obese patients Cephalic
Test specimen requires protection from light Bilirubin
EDTA is an additive in Lavender, Pink, Pearl tube tops
Described as an a nuclear biconcave disk Erythrocyte
Farthest from the center of the body or point of attachment Distal
Nearest the center of the body Proximal
What are the 3 layers of the heart Endocardium, myocardium, epicardium
What is the protective clothing and other items worn by an individual to protect mucous membranes, airways, skin and clothing from contact with infectious substances personal protective equipment
Major difference between plasma and serum is that plasma contains fibrinogens
Processing for ending venipuncture Remove tourniquet, remove the tube, remove needle, apply pressure
Test that may NOT be performed using blood capillary tubes blood cultures
Contains sodium citrate light blue tube top
Process where a pathogen or foreign matter is surrounded, engulfed and destroyed by the WBC phagocytosis
The middle layer of a blood vessel made up of smooth muscle tissue and some elastic fibers tunica media
In a successful venipuncture evacuated tubes fill automatically as soon as the tube stopper is pierced because of premeasured vacuum in each tube
Before blood donation is made a donor should be tested for Hematocrit/Hemoglobin
When making a blood smear what is the desired result a feathered edge
They engulf and digest bacteria neutrophils
When a finger is excessively milked during a skin capillary puncture collection the result is contamination with tissue fluids
When testing for drug abuse this test is taken urine sample
Blood cultures are routinely performed to diagnose or discover microorganism/infections
What are the 8 vessels of blood arota, venules, arteries, veins, arterioles, superior vena cava, capillaries, inferior vena cava
What does the formed elements (cellular portion) consist of? erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes
Veins not suitable for venipuncture sclerose, thrombotic and tortuous
Tiny, non-raised red spots that appear on or around the site due to the tourniquet being too tight or left too long Petechiae
Inflammation of a vein due to repeated venipuncture Phlebitis
Increase of proportion of plasma due to tourniquet being left on too long Hemoconcentration
When preparing for transport, this specimen should be placed in an ice bath within 30 minutes of collection Arterial Blood Gases
During a routine venipuncture, the patient becomes pale and diaphoretic, What condition is most likely to occur in this patient Syncope
A patient comes to the clinic for erythrocyte (RBC) sedimentation rate test which tube would be used for this venipuncture Lavender
The antiglycolytic agent that maintains glucose stability for 3 days is Sodium Floride
Swelling due to accumulation of fluids in the tissues is edema
Most gas exchange between blood and tissue occurs in capillaries
In this tube is Heparin, which prevents clotting by inhibiting thrombin formation Green tube topper
This antiseptic has been traditionally used to obtain the highest degree of skin antisepsis when blood cultures are being collected providine iodine
Measurement of copper, trace elements require collection in this color tube top Royal blue
This test is ordered to detect deficiency in infants and is done on blood or urine. It is a genetic disease that causes mental retardation and brain damage PKU (phenylketonuria)
Referred to as a short draw single collection tube
Described as loss of consciousness and postural tone resulting from insufficient blood flow to the brain. Syncope
Trapping blood in an extremity by compression of veins Venostasis or venous stasis
Because the increase is caused by arterial flow into the area, a specimen obtained from a warm site is described as arterialized
Test specimen that requires arterialized blood CBGs (capillary blood gases)
The concentration of ... is higher in capillary blood than in venous blood is Glucose
CLSI order of draw for capillary specimens Blood gas (CBGs), EDTA specimens, other additives, serum specimens
Process by which a person donates blood for his/her own use autologous donation
A portion of a specimen is used for testing aliquot
The additive in the red/gray speckled collection tube thixotropic gel for serum separation
Blood in the urine is Hematuria
A patient was rushed to the ER because of dehydration due to severe vomiting. The ER physician orders a test for STAT electrolytes. Which tube would the Phlebotomist use to do the collection Green tube top
The boundaries for the approved area in performing heel punctures the medial line extending from the great toe and lateral line extending from the fourth and fifth digit
What tube is used for PT and PTT Light Blue topper tube
Additive in green tube topper Heparin: lithium, sodium, aluminum
How many tubes are drawn for a three hour glucose tolerance test (GTT) 4 tubes
Which section of the Clinical laboratory will perform pregnancy test on blood specimens Chemistry
Peak level and trough levels are used in therapeutic drug monitoring
After the blood collected from a heel stick is placed on the neonatal screening card, the card must dry in a horizontal position for a minimum of 4 hours
Contraction of the heart systole
The occult blood analysis is frequently requested on Fecal Samples
the HICPAC transmission-based precautions include airborne, droplet and contact
Inhibits coagulation by binding to calcium present to the specimen and must be filled 2/3 full, inverted 8-10 times, Common tests: CBC, ESR, Sickle Cell screening Lavender
Defines low, moderate, and high complexity testing and requires labs to meet certain guidelines in order to perform their tests CLIA 88
Giving patient adequate information concerning... and consequences is... Informed Consent (is consent given by the patient who is made aware of any procedure to be performed, it risks; expected outcomes and alternatives. It refers to voluntary permission by a patient to allow touching, examination after they have been informed
Condition that results when pathogenic microbes invade your body infection
disease or infection past from person to person communicable
Gloves, mask, gown, N95 respirator, booties PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)
carries DEOXYGENATED blood from the right ventricle to the lungs Pulmonary Circulation
carries OXYGENATED blood from the left ventricle throughout the body Systemic Circulation
A blood clot, usually consequence of insufficient pressure after a needle is withdrawn Thrombus
What are the 4 stages of hemostasis 1. Vascular Stage 2 Platelet Phase 3. Coagulation Phase 4. Fibrinolysis
A temporary platelet plug formed during the platelet phase of hemostasis Aggregation
What are the steps to the chain of infection 1. Agent 2.Reservoir 3.Exit path 4.means of transmission 5.entry path 6.susceptible host
Failure to exercise due care that a responsible person would give negligence
Permanent surgical connection between an artery and a vein; they are used for dialysis procedures and must never be used for venipuncture due to possible infection Fistula
Injury to underlying tissues caused by probing the needle trauma
Lavender stopper tubes are most commonly used to collect hematology tests
specimen requires routine (normal handling) cholesterol
Multisample needles are typically available in these gauges 20-22
Process of recording the order received; this means taking steps to connect the specimen and the paperwork with a specific individual accession
Following analytical error occurs during blood collection wrong order of draw
Means of transmission are airborne, droplet(membrane), vector(insect), vehicle(food contamination)
Blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart arteries
What type of muscle lines the walls of the blood vessels visceral
referred to as sweat glands sudoriferous glands
Divides the body horizontally into upper and lower portions transverse
divides the body vertically into front and back portions frontal plane
Divides body vertically into even right/left portions midsagittal plane
divides the body vertically into right and left portions sagittal
Inanimate objects that can harbor infections transmit disease fomites
Internal space of a blood vessel through which the blood flows lumen
Average blood volume 5 Liters
Blood volume 55% plasma, 45% formed elements
Lymph originates from tissue fluids
Heart disorder characterized by fluid buildup in the lungs congestive heart failure
The longest vein and the largest artery in the body in that order are great saphenous and arota
the thick muscle layer of the heart myocardium
Complete obstruction or prolonged ischemia leads to myocardial infarction (MI) "heart attach"
Partial obstruction of a coronary artery or one of its branches can reduce blood flow to a point where it is not adequate to meet oxygen needs of the heart myocardial ischemia
valves at the entrance to the ventricles atrioventicular
upper chambers on each side of the heart - receiving chambers atria (singular, atrium)
lower chambers of the heart - pumping/delivering chambers ventricles
outer layer of a blood vessel made up of connective tissue and is thicker in arteries than in veins tunica adventitia
inner layer or lining of a blood vessel, made up of endothelial cells with an underlying basement membrane tunica intima
(Ordinary) - Distinguish with soda, acid, H20 Class A
(Flammable) - Distinguish with dry chemical, carbon dioxide Class B
(Electric) - Distinguish with dry chemical, halon carbon dioxide or non conductive material Class C
(Metals) - Distinguish with dry powder Class D
(Kitchens) - Distinguish with potassium based alkaline Class K
Multipurpose and can be used on A, B, C class fires Class ABC
Blood cultures, Aerobic and Anaerobic Sterile Yellow/Blood culture
Lithium, Rubella Screen, ANA, Herpes Red
PT, APTT, PTT, PT/INR, DDIMER, Fibrinogen, BT Light Blue (full)
CMP, BMP, Lipid profile, Calcium, ALK (alkaline), Thyroid Panel, BUN SST
Blood gas Green
Ammonia, Stat Electrolytes PST
CBC, ESR, HH, Hemoglobin, Hematocrit, Sickle cell, Lavender
Blood alcohol, GT, GTT Gray
STD/AIDS pink
Blood bank red
Trace Metal Royal blue
The ___ top evacuated tube for collection of blood for CBC test Lavender
When preparing a blood smear directly from a skin puncture it is best to ____ wipe away first drop of blood
A centrifuge is used in a clinical laboratory setting to ___ separate liquid from cells in blood
The common name for thrombocyte is platelet
the sebaceous glans, skin, hair and nails are in the ____ system integumentary
the trachea, nose, lungs and pharynx are in the ____ system respiratory
The bladder, kidneys, uretha and ureters are in the ___ system urinary
Most important step to ensure accuracy in sample collection is identifying the patient properly
When should codes on glucose covettes or strips be compared to the code on the glucose meter When patient is tested
used in the process of bloodletting venesection or phlebotomy
Over production of red blood cells polycythemia
a federal law passed requiring all healthcare providers to obtain a patient's consent in writing before disclosing medical information such as a patient's test results, treatment and condition to any unauthorized person Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)
study of nonverbal communication kinesics
study of an individual's concept and use of space proxemics
Bloods ability to form and dissolve clots Coagulation
Microbiology department in the laboratory performs culture and sensitivity testing
Compares current results of a lab test with previous results for the same test on the same patient delta check
Distance, time and shielding are principles of Radiation safety
Surfaces in the specimen collection and processing area should be cleaned with 1:10 bleach solution
In the event of a body fluid splash to the eyes, the victim should immediately flush eyes with water for 10 minutes
Injury to a blood vessel causes it to constrict slowing the flow of blood Vascular phase
Injury to the endothelial lining causes platelets to adhere to it Platelet phase
platelets stick to the site forming a temporary platelet plug in a process called aggregation
This is a systemic infection associated with the presence of pathogenic organism introduced during a venipuncture Septicemia
Common tests: CBC, RBC, WBC and Platelet count; WBC differential; Hemoglobin and Hematocrit determinations; ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate) is what tube color: Lavender
Common tests: PT, PTT, thrombin time, fibrinogen degradation products, factor assays, bleeding time (BT) Light Blue
Chemistry tests: performed on plasma such as Ammonia, carboxyhemoglobin & Stat electrolytes Green
FBS, GTT; blood alcohol; lactic acid measurement Gray
Also know as a SST; common test - most chemistry tests Reg/Gray speckled
Common tests - serum chemistry tests, serology test; blood banks. Clots by normal coagulation process in 30 minutes Red
This section performs test on the urine to detect disorders and infection of the kidney and urinary tract and to detect metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Urinalysis Section
Performs test to evaluate the patient's immune response through the production of antibodies. Uses serum to analyze the presence of antibodies to bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites and antibodies against the body's own substances Serology (immunology) section
Section responsible for the detection of pathogenic microorganisms in patient samples and for the hospital infection control. Primary test performed is culture and sensitivity Microbiology Section
Section where blood is collected, stored and prepared for transmission. Blood Bank
Consists of eletrophoresis, toxicology, immunochemistry also the following tests are performed here: liver profile: AlT/AST, Bilirubin and Coronary risk profile: Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL Chemistry
Where formed elements of blood are studied by enumerating and classifying the RBC, WBC and plates. Whole blood is the most common specimen analyzed Hematology
Involves contact with the conjunctivae or mucous membranes of the nose or mouth of a susceptible person with large particle droplets generated from the source during coughing, sneezing or talking Droplet precautions
Microorganisms can be dispersed widely by air currents and may become inhaled by or deposited on a susceptible host within the same room or over a longer distance from the source patient Airborne
This type of transmission involves skin to skin contact and physical transfer of microorganisms to a susceptible host from an infected or colonized person Direct contact
Transmission involves contact with a contaminated intermediate object in the patient's environment Indirect contact
Isolation is condensed into three categories airborne, contact and droplet
Latex sensitivity is a type of allergic reaction
This is considered a pre-analytical error inadequate fasting
Bacteria, viruses, fungus or parasites belong to this type of hazard Biologic
Arterial Blood requires special handling. What is the special handling requirement? Specimen must be chilled after collection
The "Good Samaritan Law" encourages healthcare professionals to Provide medical care within the scope of their training at the scene of an accident without fear of being sued for negligence
Microorganisms that cause disease are Pathogenic
Post-prandial means after a meal
State and Federally funded insurance is called Medicaid
National organization that develops guidelines and sets standards for laboratory procedures is CLSI
The statue of limitations timing can begin on the day the negligent act took place
Most frequent occurring lab-acquired infection is hepatitis B
This is an example of potential exposure to blood-borne pathogens that involve a parenteral route of transmission Rubbing the eyes while processing specimens
Lymph originates from tissue fluid
This tube can be used to collect a serum specimen Red
NPO means nothing by mouth
Blood collection tubes are labeled immediately after specimen collection
A patient has several short lengths of IV type tubing protruding from this chest. This is most likely a/an CVC (central venous catheter)
Removing a unit of blood from a patient and not replacing it is used as a treatment for polycythemia
After obtaining a specimen for a cold agglutinin test, the blood must be transported at body temperature
These blood specimens should be transported in an ice slurry Homocystene and rennin
Perspiration contamination can falsely elevate chloride
According to CLSI guidelines, serum for most tests should be removed from the cells within 120 minutes
This specimen can be centrifuged immediately Electrolytes collected in a PST
Created by: nashfam5