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T8484 key terms

global issues vocab

TermDefinition
ACTOR individual, group, state or organization that plays a role in world politics
SOVEREIGNTY *No other actor or entity is above the state. *The state controls all its territory *The state has unrestricted control over its domestic affairs and foreign relations
State *self-governing legal and political entity *permanent population. *defined space or territory with internationally recognized boundaries *Has sovereignty *Has a government which provides public services and police power
Nation *tightly-knit group of people which share a common culture *people culturally homogeneous *share a common language, religion, and historical experience
Nation-state nation has a state ex Japan and Ireland a complete correspondence between nations and the states that govern them
NON-STATE ACTORS *actors on the international level which are not states *independent of countries and play an important role in solving int’l problems
state-centric model international relations/world politics states are the dominant and most important actors * interactions amongst states is stressed
THEORY explains and predicts how things work in the real world under certain circumstances
NGO - Non-Governmental Organizations *legally constituted organization created by private organizations or people with no participation or representation of any government *eg. Greenpeace, Amnesty International, ICRC
MNC - MultiNational Corporations *a company or enterprise that owns production facilities or delivers services in two or more countries *eg. Coca-Cola, GE, McDonalds, Nike
global issues *issues that are of relevance across borders *environmental degradation, human rights, spread of infectious disease
Globalization *complex form of extreme interdependence *shrinks distances across continents *increased mobility of goods, services, labor, technology, and capital throughout the world *growing integration of economies and societies around the world *
interdependence *mutual dependence, interconnectedness, and cooperation *What happens in one place has consequences elsewhere
causes of globalization *Advances in Transportation *Revolutions in telecommunications and computer technologies
Economic Globalization *global exchange of products, services, and labor *the process advancing the integration of the world economy through trade and investment * most commonly talked about form of globalization
Political Globalization *Political issues in one part of the world have consequences for other parts of the world
Military Globalization *military engagement and warfare *Eg. Proliferation of the weapons of mass destruction
Cultural Globalization *Exchange of food, products, ideas etc across states
Environmental Globalization *Issues like global warming, air and water pollution, loss of biodiversity, threats to endangered species have an impact on everyone, not just where they may be noticed
G.D.P - Gross Domestic Product *essentially how much money flows through a state
human rights *rights granted to every human or at least are trying to be enforced for every human just for the sake of existing
Civil liberties *personal freedoms ex. freedom of speech, religion, thought; the right to own property, the right to equal treatment under the law; the rule of law, etc
Political rights *right to vote and the right to participate in the political process
Social rights *right to health care and education; the right to be secure from danger and physical violence
4 dominate claims of human rights *governments abusing individuals *demands by ethnic, religious,racial communities for independence *demands by minority groups for certain rights *demands by governments to be protected against other powerful governments
Universalism vs. Cultural Relativism *people as having natural rights no matter where they lived V.S. *Rights enjoyed by individuals should be determined by what is found in that culture and society
Sanctions *punishments or penalties imposed by one state, a group of states or the global community on another state or group of states in order to make them comply with global standards of behavior
Humanitarian Intervention *military forces are deployed to prevent or stop a country or group from engaging in gross violations of human rights
The Free Market (Capitalism) The voluntary exchange between buyers and sellers
Treaty of Westphalia Led to the end of the thirty years war Ended the catholic control over Europe Led to the establishment of sovereign states
Genocide The destruction of a group of people (ethnic, religious or national)
International Criminal Court (ICC) Used to bring justice to war criminals
Liberal Democracy Guarantees and safe guards civil liberties and imposes checks on the power of the government
Imports Goods and services purchased from foreign sources
Exports Goods and services sold to foreign buyers
Trade balance the difference between the value of exports and imports (TB=exports-imports)
Trade deficit the amount by which the value of imports is more than the value of the exports in a given time period
trade surplus the amount by which the value of exports is more than the value of imports in a given time period
Closed economy (autarky) A nation that doesn't engage in international trade
4 reasons for trade *diversity of choice *different factor endowments (naturally has a lot of) *Economies of scale (output produced increases, average unit cost decreases) *competition (this benefits consumers)
specialization Each country produces those goods it makes best, then trades with other countries to acquire the goods it desires to consume
Comparative advantage The ability of a country to produce a specific good at a lower opportunity cost than its trading partners
Absolute advantage the ability of one country to produce more efficiently (greater output per unit of input) than another *Does Not Matter
Opportunity cost The cost of passing up the next best choice when making a decision
Net gain from trade The net gains from trade are greater than the net losses
Reasons to have trade barriers *Affected industries will try to restrict imports to preserve their own jobs and incomes *National security concerns *Protection of infant industries Protection of infant industries
Embargo A prohibition on exports or imports *ex. US and Cuba
Tariff *A tax (duty) imposed on imported goods *A tariff makes imported goods more expensive to domestic consumers, and less competitive with domestically priced goods
Quota *A limit on the quantity of a good that may be imported in a given time period *(greater threat to competition than tariffs because quotas preclude additional imports at any price)
What are some barriers on trade Embargoes, tariffs, and quotas
Free-trade equilibrium *allows the import of unlimited quantities at the world price *results in reduced prices and increased consumption *Domestic producers, that cannot compete effectively, are unhappy
Who came up with the law of comparative advantage? David Ricardo
Terrorism Enablers Are: Poverty, Failed States, globalization, legitimate grievances, bad governments, humiliation, lack of democracy, foreign policy
Goals of Terrorism Include... Publicity, foreign policy change, pressure on governments, self determination, social and political justice.
Terrorism is much cheaper than conventional warfare, why? Unconventional weapons (airplanes, suicide bombers..), no need for training
Hawalas Informal terrorist banking system
What process was designed to deter the blood diamond trade? The Kimberly Process
pacific and Atlantic garbage patch trash mostly small time plastics that liter the oceans and swirl around in the large vortexes that are ocean currents
global warming increase in temperature over the past one hundred years do to the green house effect.
Goldberg glacier glacier in the Hungarian mountains of Europe that is melting at a rapid pace due to global warming. this rapid melt could mean swells of flooding and drought for the surrounding environment
green house effect gases released into the atmosphere that cause global temperature to rise. CO2 is the chief greenhouse gas and contributes 30% to the greenhouse effect. Methane is no. 2 and contributes 10% of the greenhouse effect.
global commons common environment made up of the totality of organisms
carrying capacity the Earth’s ability to support and sustain life
ecopolitics the causal linkage between ecology and politics. investigates how political actors make choices to mange the harmful impact of human behavior on the environment in which all people on Earth live.
Environmental security focuses on preserving the global environment by recognizing the threats of such phenomena as global warming, ozone depletion, and the loss of tropical forests and marine habitats which can threaten the future of humanity
Sustainable development an alternative to the quest for unrestrained growth. A “sustainable society” is one that “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
Intergovernmental Panel on climate change (IPCC) UN team of hundreds of atmospheric scientists from around the world
IPCC environmental warning part 1 1. Sea levels will rise because of melting glaciers and the expansion of water as it warms up. This will produce massive floods of vast areas of low lying coastal lands.
IPCC environmental warning part 2 2. Winters will get warmer and heat waves will be more frequent and severe, causing avalanches from melting glaciers 3. Rainfall will ^ worldwide and deadly storms will ^ in frequency. As oceans heat, hurricanes will become stronger and more frequent.
IPCC environmental warning part 3 4. Because water evaporates more easily in a warmer climate, drought prone regions will become even drier. 5. Many living species will face the risk of extinction as entire ecosystems vanish from the planet.
IPCC environmental warning part 4 6. flooding and droughts will cause tropical diseases to flourish in previously temperate regions that were once too cold for their insect carriers. 7. The world will face an ^ in hunger and water shortages, especially in the poorest countries.
ozone hole holes in the ozone layer over the poles. holes are larger then the continental U.S. the ozone holes allow in harmful radiation from the sun and were created through the large amount of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's)that were released into the atmosphere
shrinking forests almost half of the forests once covering the Earth have been converted for ranching, farmland, pastures, and other uses. deforestation is exterminating an average of 50,000 species a year
the trouble with water Water usage has grown by 600 % over the past 70 years. Less than 3% of the entire water found is fresh, By 2025, 2 out of every 3 people on the planet are projected to live in a water-stressed area and water wars are seen as an imminent threat
What is dead-dropping? Terrorist share an email and leave messages for other terrorist
Tragedy of the Commons individuals acting independently in their own self-interest can ultimately destroy a shared resource even where it is clear that it is not in anyone's long term interest for this to happen
energy problems main sources of energy are fossil fuels which have the byproducts of "atmospheric poisons" known alternatives for this crisis are Solar, tidal, and wind power, as well as geothermal energy and nuclear energy, although nuclear engery creats more risks
Kyoto Protocol of 2005 156 countries accounting for at least 55 % of greenhouse emissions pledged to cut emissions of gases linked to global warming below 1990 levels by the year 2012. Notably, the US refused to cooperate.
Biodiversity, or biological diversity an umbrella term that refers to the Earth’s variety of life
THE THREAT TO GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY deforestation, overfishing, climate change, and over exploitation of wild life.
deforestation Destruction of tropical forests, where two-thirds to three-fourths of all species are believed to live, threatens the destruction of the world’s undiscovered biological diversity and genetic heritage, global warming could drive to extinction up to 37 %
keystone species a species that can affect its surrounding ecosystem profoundly ie the gray wolf of Yellowstone
biological diversity and medicine Each living thing contains a unique reservoir of genetic material that cannot be retrieved or duplicated if lost, their chemical secrets could have possible health benefits for mankind mankind.
Biodiversity and Agriculture biological controls are being used for ridding pests from ruining crops and they come from natural extraction from living organisms making the chemicals safe for use. another bonus is cross pollination which gives off better crops
Ecosystem services life-support services provided by our environment such as air and water purification, detoxification and decomposition of wastes, climate regulation, regeneration of soil fertility, and the production and maintenance of biological diversity
tiger catastrophe tigers are becoming more and more endangered as poachers kill them off and the Chinese purchase their bones and pelts. it is said that there may be as few as 20 in the Chinese wilderness
endangered species sadly the endangered seem only to be getting more endangered. tiger bones, elephant ivory, and rhino horns are all examples of poached goods from endangered species and sadly the market is only getting larger.
Created by: globissuesT8484