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Medical Cell Biology

Hydrophobic Small, easily diffuse across membrane, activate receptors inside target cells (transcription factor), directly interact
Hydrophilic Large, cannot across membrane, use cell surface receptors to transmit signals within cells
Types of receptors Extracellular, transmembrane receptor, membrane receptor, intracellular receptor
Membrane receptors/cell surface receptor Ion channel (linked receptor), G-protein coupled receptors, enzyme-linked receptors
G-protein coupled receptor 7 TM proteins, activate trimeric G-protein (alpha, beta, gamma), Activated alpha-subunit will activate adenyl cyclase, which will increase cAMP, which will activate PKA, which will increase transcrpition
Ion channel-linked receptor cation and anion channels, involved rapid signalling-excitatory neurons, opening and closing of channels is controlled by Nt
Enzyme linked receptor enzyme binds to a receptor
Steroid receptors are associate with the following: Zinc finger and HRE (hormone response element)
Muscurinic when acetylcholine binds to an organ receptor
The effects of acetylcholine binding to a salivary gland? Saliva secretion
The effects of acetylcholine on a heart biological receptor? Decrease rate and force of contraction
The effects of acetylcholine on a nicotinic receptor Depolarization and contraction
Short Distance Cell Signaling Paracrine, autocrine, and juxtacrine
Long distance Cell Signaling Endocrine and synaptic
Paracrine chemicals are releases in extracellular environment, exerts effect on neighboring cells. Example: NEUROTRANSMITTER
Autocrine Effect on itself, cells that synthesize the ligands-release the signaling ligand, which then act on the same cell. Example: INTERLEUKIN
Juxtacrine Ligand not released from synthesizing cells, remain attach to the plasma membrane, interact with receptors on adjacent cells. Example: Epidermal growth factor
Endocrine Hormone-released into circulation. Example: Insulin or Glucagon
Synaptic Specialized form of paracrine, signals are transmitted along neuronal processes
Hormones Diverse activities, act over long distances, time scale is from min-years, endocrine glands (pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, etc.), enter circulation-induce many changes in the cells
2 Groups of hormones 1. Lipophilic (hydrophobic)-steroid hormones 2. hydrophillic
Lipophilic hormone Easily pass through membrane, synthesized from cholesterol, do not store hormones, time is from hours to days, has nuclear receptors. Examples: sex hormones, corticosteroids, iodothyroxines (thyroid hormones).
Retinoids Synthesized from VITAMIN A and not from CHOLESTEROL
Hormone signaling pathway Hormone diffuse through plasma membrane, bind to nuclear receptor, forms a hormone/receptor complex, complex binds to HRE at the promoter region of DNA, gene transcription
Glucocorticoid receptors Receptor located in cytosol and is bound to HSP 70/90 (inactive), when receptor ligand complex is formed, HSP 70/90 is displaced, the whole complex translocates to the nucleus, dimer activates gene transcription
Estrogen receptor signaling pathway In nucleus inactive when bound to Hsp 90, when estrogen bound to receptor-displays Hsp90, activated receptor with estrogen-form a dimer, the dimer then bind to DNA w/HAT associated
Thyroid Receptors Receptor binds to DNA with or without presence of ligand. Absence of ligand--receptor is bound to HDAC. Presence of ligand -- receptor is bound to HAT
Hydrophilic Peptide Release hormone into the blood, bind to surface receptor, generates 2nd messenge, (IP3/cAMP), immediate action but only last a short time b/c hormones are quickly degraded.
3 Classes GPCR, Ligand-gated ion channel, catalytic receptors (insulin-tyrosine kinase receptor)
Somatotropes Secrete growth hr
Lactotropes Secretes prolactin
Corticotrophs Secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Thyrotropes Secrete thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Gonadotrophs Secrete follicle-stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH)
Classical Pituitary somatotropes, lactotropes, corticotrophs, thyrotropes, gonadotrophs
Non-classical hormone of pituitary Growth factor, cytokines, neurotransmitter
Growth factors Mitogen, trophic factors, survival factors
Mitogen cell proliferation
Trophic factors promote growth
survival factors inhibit apoptosis
NGF down regulate = apoptosis, upregulate = survival
EGF epidermal growth factor, cell proliferation
TGF-alpha high concentration, stimulate growth, low concentration-inhibit growth
PDGF platelet derived growth factor, tissue repair
VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor, increase vascular permeability
Interleukin proliferation and differentiation of the T and B lymphocytes
Inhibins Inhibits FSH secretion
Activin Regulate formation of early embryonic nervous system
Interferons Antiviral effects
TNF Tumor necrosis factor, suppression of tumor
Insulin like GF mitogens, tropic, survival factors
Created by: jsabangan